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Gender Equality in Education, Health Care, and Employment: Evidence from Vietnam


  • Nguyen, Cuong


This paper examines gender equality in three important aspects including education, health care and employment in Vietnam. Data used in this paper are from the most recent Vietnam Household Living Standard Surveys in 2004, 2006 and 2008. It is found that there are no differences in primary and lower-secondary education enrolment between girls and boys for the whole country as well as for different people groups such as urban/rural, ethnic minority and Kinh/Hoa people. Women are more likely than men in using outpatient and inpatient health care services. However, for people above 14 years old, men still have higher education and a higher rate of literacy than women. Women are less likely than men in having wage employment, and their wage is lower than men’s wage. Women have to do more housework than men even after the working hours for income are controlled for.

Suggested Citation

  • Nguyen, Cuong, 2012. "Gender Equality in Education, Health Care, and Employment: Evidence from Vietnam," MPRA Paper 54222, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:54222

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Joana Costa & Elydia Silva & Fábio Vaz, 2009. "The Role of Gender Inequalities in Explaining Income Growth, Poverty and Inequality: Evidence from Latin American Countries," Working Papers 52, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth.
    2. Udry, Christopher, 1996. "Gender, Agricultural Production, and the Theory of the Household," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(5), pages 1010-1046, October.
    3. Jeffrey M Wooldridge, 2010. "Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 2, volume 1, number 0262232588, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Hoang, Thu Huong & Nguyen, Viet Cuong, 2014. "Do Parents Choose the Sex of their Children? Evidence from Vietnam," MPRA Paper 70151, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Nguyen Viet Cuong & Vu Hoang Linh, 2016. "Should Parents Work Away from or Close to Home? The Effect of Parental Absence on Children's Time Use in Vietnam," Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(1), pages 110-124, February.
    3. Nidhiya Menon & Yana van der Meulen Rodgers, 2010. "Gender Differences in Socioeconomic Status and Health: Evidence from the 2008 Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey," Working Papers 18, Brandeis University, Department of Economics and International Businesss School.

    More about this item


    Gender equality; education; health; employment; household survey; Vietnam.;

    JEL classification:

    • I0 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - General
    • J10 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - General
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination


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