Gender Equality in Education, Health Care, and Employment: Evidence from Vietnam
This paper examines gender equality in three important aspects including education, health care and employment in Vietnam. Data used in this paper are from the most recent Vietnam Household Living Standard Surveys in 2004, 2006 and 2008. It is found that there are no differences in primary and lower-secondary education enrolment between girls and boys for the whole country as well as for different people groups such as urban/rural, ethnic minority and Kinh/Hoa people. Women are more likely than men in using outpatient and inpatient health care services. However, for people above 14 years old, men still have higher education and a higher rate of literacy than women. Women are less likely than men in having wage employment, and their wage is lower than men’s wage. Women have to do more housework than men even after the working hours for income are controlled for.
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