IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Gender Equality in Education, Health Care, and Employment: Evidence from Vietnam


  • Nguyen, Cuong


This paper examines gender equality in three important aspects including education, health care and employment in Vietnam. Data used in this paper are from the most recent Vietnam Household Living Standard Surveys in 2004, 2006 and 2008. It is found that there are no differences in primary and lower-secondary education enrolment between girls and boys for the whole country as well as for different people groups such as urban/rural, ethnic minority and Kinh/Hoa people. Women are more likely than men in using outpatient and inpatient health care services. However, for people above 14 years old, men still have higher education and a higher rate of literacy than women. Women are less likely than men in having wage employment, and their wage is lower than men’s wage. Women have to do more housework than men even after the working hours for income are controlled for.

Suggested Citation

  • Nguyen, Cuong, 2012. "Gender Equality in Education, Health Care, and Employment: Evidence from Vietnam," MPRA Paper 54222, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:54222

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Joana Costa & Elydia Silva & Fábio Vaz, 2009. "The Role of Gender Inequalities in Explaining Income Growth, Poverty and Inequality: Evidence from Latin American Countries," Working Papers 52, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth.
    2. Udry, Christopher, 1996. "Gender, Agricultural Production, and the Theory of the Household," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 104(5), pages 1010-1046, October.
    3. Jeffrey M Wooldridge, 2010. "Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 2, volume 1, number 0262232588, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Hoang, Thu Huong & Nguyen, Viet Cuong, 2014. "Do Parents Choose the Sex of their Children? Evidence from Vietnam," MPRA Paper 70151, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Nidhiya Menon & Yana van der Meulen Rodgers, 2010. "Gender Differences in Socioeconomic Status and Health: Evidence from the 2008 Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey," Working Papers 18, Brandeis University, Department of Economics and International Businesss School.

    More about this item


    Gender equality; education; health; employment; household survey; Vietnam.;

    JEL classification:

    • I0 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - General
    • J10 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - General
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:54222. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.