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Fragmentation in Production, Vertical Integration and Wage Inequality: A Theoretical Note

Author

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  • Das, Gouranga

Abstract

Developing a three-sector and four-factor general equilibrium model, this paper offers an explanation of wage inequality in a vertically fragmented production structure typical of off-shore outsourcing to developing countries like China or India. The model characterizes a typical developing economy where intermediate good is produced using capital and local low-skilled worker, traditional sector uses unskilled worker to produce agricultural products and skilled worker works in tandem with intermediates to produce final goods for export. The model furnishes that wage dispersion could be explained theoretically in this specific-factor general equilibrium structure where factor returns are endogenously determined within a production structure with middle products. In particular, scenario analysis shows that increase in relative price of final good aggravates wage inequality, whereas opposite happens when price of intermediates and import-competing sector inflates. Skilling the unskilled and protecting the sector intensive in low-skilled could attenuate the adverse impact.

Suggested Citation

  • Das, Gouranga, 2012. "Fragmentation in Production, Vertical Integration and Wage Inequality: A Theoretical Note," MPRA Paper 47455, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:47455
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/47455/1/MPRA_paper_47455.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman, 2005. "Outsourcing in a Global Economy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 72(1), pages 135-159.
    2. Bridgman, Benjamin, 2012. "The rise of vertical specialization trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 133-140.
    3. Das, Gouranga, 2010. "Globalization, socio-institutional factors and North–South knowledge diffusion: Role of India and China as Southern growth progenitors," MPRA Paper 37252, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 01 Aug 2011.
    4. Mary Amiti & Shang-Jin Wei, 2005. "Fear of service outsourcing: is it justified?," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 20(42), pages 308-347, April.
    5. Gouranga Das, 2009. "A hybrid production structure in trade: theory and implications," International Review of Economics, Springer;Happiness Economics and Interpersonal Relations (HEIRS), vol. 56(4), pages 359-375, December.
    6. Horgos, Daniel, 2009. "Labor market effects of international outsourcing: How measurement matters," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 611-623, October.
    7. Nathalie Chusseau & Michel Dumont & Joël Hellier, 2008. "Explaining Rising Inequality: Skill-Biased Technical Change And North-South Trade ," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(3), pages 409-457, July.
    8. Ronald W. Jones, 2000. "Globalization and the Theory of Input Trade," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 026210086x, January.
    9. Sanyal, Kalyan K & Jones, Ronald W, 1982. "The Theory of Trade in Middle Products," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(1), pages 16-31, March.
    10. Ronald W. Jones, 1965. "The Structure of Simple General Equilibrium Models," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73, pages 557-557.
    11. Hummels, David & Ishii, Jun & Yi, Kei-Mu, 2001. "The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 75-96, June.
    12. Ronald Jones & Sugata Marjit, 2009. "Competitive trade models and real world features," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 41(1), pages 163-174, October.
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    Cited by:

    1. Soumyatanu Mukherjee, 2015. "Input Trade Liberalisation and Wage-inequality with Non-traded Goods," Discussion Papers 2015-05, University of Nottingham, CREDIT.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Wage Inequality; Fragmentation; Vertical Specialization; Specific Factor;

    JEL classification:

    • D5 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium
    • D50 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - General
    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F11 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Neoclassical Models of Trade

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