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Macroeconomic Determinants of Direct Investment Abroad of Singapore

Author

Listed:
  • Kueh, Jerome Swee-Hui
  • Puah, Chin Hong
  • Liew, Venus Khim-Sen

Abstract

The objective of this study is to discover the determinants of Direct Investment Abroad (DIA) of Singapore. It also measures the impacts of various determinants on the DIA of Singapore. Based on theoretical justification, several potential determinants including aggregate income, interest rate, trade openness and exchange rate are considered in this study. Results obtained reveals that higher aggregate income will contribute to the expansion of abroad investment of Singaporean firms. Meanwhile, the increase (decrease) of DIA of Singapore is significantly related to the appreciation (depreciation) of the Singapore dollar per US dollar exchange rate in the long run. This finding is in tandem with the literature that suggests that appreciation of the home currency tends to increase the volume of abroad investment activities. Meanwhile, the current study finds the existence of inverse relationship between interest rate and DIA of Singapore in the long run. This finding is consistent with the argument that lower interest rate reflects the abundance of capital in Singapore and subsequently lowers the opportunity cost in seeking capital for DIA. In other words, these firms have competitive advantage in financing foreign investment due to lower cost of borrowing in home country. Nevertheless, trade openness of Singapore exhibits inverse linkage towards the DIA of Singapore in the long run. This may due to the substitution effect of the trade activities against the DIA of Singapore, as explained in the text. It is also discovered that exchange rate and aggregate income have larger influence on the DIA of Singapore, compared to other determinants. It is argued that the association of the ownership, location and internationalization advantages gained by Singapore has contributed to the economic development path of the country.

Suggested Citation

  • Kueh, Jerome Swee-Hui & Puah, Chin Hong & Liew, Venus Khim-Sen, 2010. "Macroeconomic Determinants of Direct Investment Abroad of Singapore," MPRA Paper 47243, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2013.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:47243
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/47243/1/MPRA_paper_47243.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Lall, Sanjaya, 1980. "Monopolistic Advantages and Foreign Involvement by U.S. Manufacturing Industry," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 32(1), pages 102-122, March.
    2. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-1072, June.
    3. Chin-Hong Puah & Albert Apoi & Jerome Swee-Hui Kueh, 2008. "Outward FDI of Malaysia: An Empirical Examination from Macroeconomic Perspective," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 6(28), pages 1-11.
    4. Chew-Ging Lee, 2009. "Outward Foreign Direct Investment and Economic Growth: Evidence from Japan and Singapore," NUBS Malaysia Campus Research Paper Series 2009-02, Nottingham University Business School Malaysia Campus.
    5. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:6:y:2008:i:28:p:1-11 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Kueh, Jerome Swee-Hui & Puah, Chin-Hong & Abu Mansor, Shazali, 2009. "Empirical analysis on emerging issues of Malaysia outward FDI from macroeconomic perspective," MPRA Paper 37680, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Ellingsen, Gaute & Likumahuwa, Winfried & Nunnenkamp, Peter, 2006. "Outward FDI by Singapore: a different animal?," Open Access Publications from Kiel Institute for the World Economy 3947, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    8. Daniel Pick & Utpal Vasavada, 1998. "Exchange Rate Effects on the Relationship between FDI and Trade in the U.S. Food Processing Industry," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 80(5), pages 1073-1079.
    9. Kalotay, Kalman & Sulstarova, Astrit, 2010. "Modelling Russian outward FDI," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 131-142, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Direct Investment Abroad; Economic Growth; Trade Openness; VECM; Singapore;

    JEL classification:

    • E02 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General - - - Institutions and the Macroeconomy
    • E6 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook

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