India’s Outward Foreign Direct Investment: Closed Doors to Open Souk
Abstract: Spectacular liberalisation of trade and investment policies opened the floodgate of capital flows in and out of India from the mid 1990s. This colossal capital flows facilitated the rapid economic growth and raised the country’s profile as one of the super powers in the region. The recent surge of outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) from India has a significant balance of payments as well as enormous socio economic effect in securing the country’s position as a new economic power in the global context. Since the study on the OFDI is sparse, this paper attempts to contribute to the literature by examining the major determinants of OFDI from India using the cointegration and Vector Error Correction Model over 1970 and 2009. The results of our study indicate that the dramatic financial and trade liberalisation has instigated the gigantic outflow of investment and acquisition by India’s firms. Furthermore, the domestic economic environment including the growing human capital stocks, increasing international competitiveness, large influx of inflow of foreign capital and increased domestic savings are positively and significantly influencing India’s huge outward capital flows in recent decade. However, improvement in domestic technological capabilities, rising standard of living and increased interest rates are deterrents to the OFDI of the country in the long run. Granger causality test also indicates that while all the above mentioned independent variables are Granger causing OFDI, nevertheless, outward FDI does not Granger cause any of the factors determining the OFDI from India.
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