IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Non-Zero Lower Bound Lending Rate and the Liquidity Trap


  • Khemraj, Tarron


Most studies of the liquidity trap emphasize the zero bound benchmark policy rate. This paper integrates a non-zero lower bound lending rate and the traditional zero bound policy rate in a dynamic structural macroeconomic model that takes into consideration aggregate bank liquidity preference as a financial friction. The approach allows for analyzing the dynamic effects of quantitative easing and an interest rate policy. Once the non-zero lower limit is reached, increasing the benchmark policy rate marginally can have a positive effect on output. Expanding quantitative easing at the non-zero lower limit results in a negative effect on output. Increasing marginally the zero bound policy rate is better at stimulating inflation than quantitative easing. However, excessive tightening in a normal regime would result in the opposite effect.

Suggested Citation

  • Khemraj, Tarron, 2011. "The Non-Zero Lower Bound Lending Rate and the Liquidity Trap," MPRA Paper 42030, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 01 May 2012.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:42030

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Todd Keister & James J. McAndrews, 2009. "Why are banks holding so many excess reserves?," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 15(Dec).
    2. Dani Rodrik & Arvind Subramanian, 2009. "Why Did Financial Globalization Disappoint?," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 56(1), pages 112-138, April.
    3. Yoshiyasu Ono, 2011. "The Keynesian Multiplier Effect Reconsidered," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 43(4), pages 787-794, June.
    4. Kazuo Ogawa, 2007. "Why Commercial Banks Held Excess Reserves: The Japanese Experience of the Late 1990s," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 39(1), pages 241-257, February.
    5. Ryu‚Äźichiro Murota & Yoshiyasu Ono, 2012. "Zero Nominal Interest Rates, Unemployment, Excess Reserves And Deflation In A Liquidity Trap," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 63(2), pages 335-357, May.
    6. Charles Goodhart & Boris Hofmann, 2005. "The IS curve and the transmission of monetary policy: is there a puzzle?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(1), pages 29-36.
    7. Xavier Freixas & Jean-Charles Rochet, 2008. "Microeconomics of Banking, 2nd Edition," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 2, volume 1, number 0262062704, January.
    8. Tarron Khemraj, 2007. "What does excess bank liquidity say about the loan market in Less Developed Countries?," Working Papers 60, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    liquidity trap; quantitative easing; financial friction; excess liquidity;

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • E51 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
    • E00 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General - - - General
    • E40 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - General


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:42030. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.