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The distribution of wages and employee incomes in Slovenia, 1991–2009


  • Stanovnik, Tine
  • Verbič, Miroslav


This paper analyses the distribution of employee income in Slovenia in the period 1991–2009. The analysis is based on two different datasets, both derived from the personal income tax files. It was shown that income inequality of employees income has somewhat increased in this period, using the Gini coefficient as the indicator of income inequality. Though increases in income inequality were moderate according to this summary measure, rather largest changes did occur at the very top of the income distribution, i.e. top 5 per cent and top one per cent of employees. Income inequality of employees’ net income (i.e. net of employee social contributions and personal income tax) remained fairly stable in this time period. In other words, the changes in personal income tax dampened to a large degree the effects of increasing inequality in the distribution of employee gross income. This was also established using the Kakwani index of progressivity. Increases in progressivity of the personal income tax came in leaps, mostly following the introduction of new income tax legislation.

Suggested Citation

  • Stanovnik, Tine & Verbič, Miroslav, 2012. "The distribution of wages and employee incomes in Slovenia, 1991–2009," MPRA Paper 38917, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:38917

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Anthony B. Atkinson & Thomas Piketty & Emmanuel Saez, 2011. "Top Incomes in the Long Run of History," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-71, March.
    2. John Creedy, 1999. "Taxation, Redistribution and Progressivity: An Introduction," Australian Economic Review, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, vol. 32(4), pages 410-422.
    3. Kakwani, Nanok C, 1977. "Measurement of Tax Progressivity: An International Comparison," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 87(345), pages 71-80, March.
    4. Majcen, Boris & Verbic, Miroslav & Cok, Mitja, 2007. "The Income Tax Reform in Slovenia: Should the Flat Tax Have Prevailed?," MPRA Paper 10348, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Atkinson, A B, 2008. "The Changing Distribution of Earnings in OECD Countries," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199532438.
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    Cited by:

    1. Tine Stanovnik & Miroslav Verbic, 2014. "Personal income tax reforms and tax progressivity in Slovenia, 1991-2012," Financial Theory and Practice, Institute of Public Finance, vol. 38(4), pages 441-463.

    More about this item


    income inequality; income distribution; wages; Slovenia;

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials

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