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Personal income tax reforms and tax progressivity in Slovenia, 1991-2012


  • Tine Stanovnik

    (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics & Institute for Economic Research, Ljubljana, Slovenia)

  • Miroslav Verbic

    (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics & Institute for Economic Research, Ljubljana, Slovenia)


Using two different data sets, both derived from the personal income tax files, this paper analyses income inequality and the effects of the personal income tax on after-tax income of employees in Slovenia. It has been shown by using the Kakwani index of progressivity that increases in tax progressivity came in leaps and bounds upon the introduction of new PIT legislation. After the early years of transition (1991-1993), characterized by a large increase in income inequality, the distribution of income has experienced rather small changes; this can be attributed to the introduction of the minimum wage and introduction of a tripartite institution (The Economic and Social Council), responsible for wage negotiations. Inequality of employee’s income has even been decreasing since 2005; some of this decrease is due to changes in the tax base, as PIT legislation introduced schedular taxation of capital income in 2005 and differentiated tax allowances in 2008. The share of income accruing to the top 1% of earners has not been increasing, but has been fluctuating, though on a decreasing trend in the last 10 years.

Suggested Citation

  • Tine Stanovnik & Miroslav Verbic, 2014. "Personal income tax reforms and tax progressivity in Slovenia, 1991-2012," Financial Theory and Practice, Institute of Public Finance, vol. 38(4), pages 441-463.
  • Handle: RePEc:ipf:finteo:v:38:y:2014:i:4:p:441-463

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Anthony B. Atkinson & Thomas Piketty & Emmanuel Saez, 2011. "Top Incomes in the Long Run of History," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-71, March.
    2. R. A. Musgrave & Tun Thin, 1948. "Income Tax Progression, 1929-48," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 56, pages 498-498.
    3. Stanovnik, Tine & Verbič, Miroslav, 2012. "The distribution of wages and employee incomes in Slovenia, 1991–2009," MPRA Paper 38917, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Facundo Alvaredo & Anthony B. Atkinson & Thomas Piketty & Emmanuel Saez, 2013. "The Top 1 Percent in International and Historical Perspective," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 27(3), pages 3-20, Summer.
    5. Tine Stanovnik & Miroslav Verbic, 2005. "Wage and Income Inequality in Slovenia, 1993-2002," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(3), pages 381-397.
    6. Thomas Piketty & Emmanuel Saez, 2013. "Top Incomes and the Great Recession: Recent Evolutions and Policy Implications," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 61(3), pages 456-478, August.
    7. John Creedy, 1999. "Taxation, Redistribution and Progressivity: An Introduction," Australian Economic Review, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, vol. 32(4), pages 410-422.
    8. Mitja Cok & Ivica Urban, 2007. "Distribution of Income and Taxes in Slovenia and Croatia," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 299-316.
    9. Kakwani, Nanok C, 1977. "Measurement of Tax Progressivity: An International Comparison," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 87(345), pages 71-80, March.
    10. Tine Stanovnik & Miroslav Verbič, 2013. "Earnings inequality and tax progressivity in Slovenia, 1991–2009," Acta Oeconomica, Akadémiai Kiadó, Hungary, vol. 63(4), pages 405-421, December.
    11. Mitja ÄŒok & Ivica Urban & Miroslav VerbiÄ, 2013. "Income Redistribution through Taxes and Social Benefits: The Case of Slovenia and Croatia," Panoeconomicus, Savez ekonomista Vojvodine, Novi Sad, Serbia, vol. 60(5), pages 667-686, September.
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    13. Atkinson, A B, 2008. "The Changing Distribution of Earnings in OECD Countries," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199532438.
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    More about this item


    income inequality; income distribution; earnings; Slovenia;

    JEL classification:

    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution


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