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The determinants of dividend policy in Pakistan

  • Ahmed, Hafeez
  • Javid, Attiya Yasmin

This study examines the dynamics and determinants of dividend payout policy of 320 non-financial firms listed in Karachi Stock Exchange during the period of 2001 to 2006. For the analysis we use dividend model of Lintner (1956) and its extended versions in dynamic setting. The results consistently support that Pakistani listed non-financial firms rely on both current earning per share and past dividend per share to set their dividend payments. However, the dividend tends to be more sensitive to current earnings than prior dividends. The listed non-financial firms having the high speed of adjustment and low target payout ratio show the instability in smoothing their dividend payments. To find out the determinants of dividend payout policy dynamic panel regression has been performed. It is found that the profitable firms with more stable net earnings can afford larger free cash flows and therefore pay larger dividends. Furthermore the ownership concentration and market liquidity have the positive impact on dividend payout policy. Besides, the investment opportunities and leverage have the negative impact on dividend payout policy. The market capitalization and size of the firms have the negative impact on dividend payout policy which shows that the firms prefer to invest in their assets rather than pay dividends to their shareholders.

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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 37339.

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Date of creation: 2008
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:37339
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  1. DeAngelo, Harry & DeAngelo, Linda & Stulz, Rene M., 2006. "Dividend policy and the earned/contributed capital mix: a test of the life-cycle theory," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(2), pages 227-254, August.
  2. Malcolm Baker & Jeffrey Wurgler, 2003. "A Catering Theory of Dividends," NBER Working Papers 9542, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Varouj Aivazian & Laurence Booth & Sean Cleary, 2003. "Do Emerging Market Firms Follow Different Dividend Policies From U.S. Firms?," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 26(3), pages 371-387.
  4. Sudipto Bhattacharya, 1979. "Imperfect Information, Dividend Policy, and "The Bird in the Hand" Fallacy," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 10(1), pages 259-270, Spring.
  5. Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 2001. "Disappearing dividends: changing firm characteristics or lower propensity to pay?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 3-43, April.
  6. M. J. Gordon, 1963. "Optimal Investment And Financing Policy," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 18(2), pages 264-272, 05.
  7. DeAngelo, Harry & DeAngelo, Linda & Skinner, Douglas J., 2004. "Are dividends disappearing? Dividend concentration and the consolidation of earnings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(3), pages 425-456, June.
  8. Nickell, Stephen J, 1981. "Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1417-26, November.
  9. Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
  10. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-29, May.
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