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Legislation for child labor and compulsory schooling in Pakistan: some issues


  • Khan, Rana Ejaz Ali
  • Jamal, Warda Najeeb


The lack of proper legislation about child labor and compulsory schooling, and its enforcement sustains child labor and a bulk of out of school children in Pakistan. This is manifested in different ways. In this paper we have discussed the issues of legislation and its implementation. Since child labor legislation do not cover informal sector, it is further hampered by the collusion of parents with employers in violating the law. There are also inconsistencies in legislation, which may pose problems. For example, there is no uniform definition of child labor in different Acts of legislation, and the penalties for offenders are generally too light to have a deterrent effect. Statutory provisions clearly defining the nature of work do not accompany a legal ban on child labor. Moreover child legislation is not done according to the ratifications of international conventions.

Suggested Citation

  • Khan, Rana Ejaz Ali & Jamal, Warda Najeeb, 2008. "Legislation for child labor and compulsory schooling in Pakistan: some issues," MPRA Paper 34429, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:34429

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Margo, Robert A. & Aldrich Finegan, T., 1996. "Compulsory schooling legislation and school attendance in turn-of-the century America: A 'natural experiment' approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 103-110, October.
    2. Sylvain Dessy & St├ęphane Pallage, 2003. "The Economics of Child Trafficking," Cahiers de recherche 0323, CIRPEE.
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    More about this item


    child welfair; national legislation pakistan; child labour;

    JEL classification:

    • J08 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General - - - Labor Economics Policies
    • O5 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • K31 - Law and Economics - - Other Substantive Areas of Law - - - Labor Law


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