IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/pra/mprapa/32044.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

We are living on the cost of our children

Author

Listed:
  • Waqas, Muhamad
  • Awan, Masood Sarwar
  • Aslam, Muhammad Amir

Abstract

The strict assumptions of Ricardian Equivalence Hypothesis hoist the debates on this issue among different school of thoughts. Its validity entails certain assumptions which raise the doubts on its validity especially in the context of developing countries like Pakistan. The aim of this study is to check the validity of Ricardian Equivalence Hypothesis and its sources of deviation in case of Pakistan. The study use annual data for the period of 1973-2009. Engle and Granger and Johansen cointegration approaches depicts the long run relationship among variables. Generalized Method of Moment results shows that the presence of liquidity constraints and infinite horizons are the sources of failure of Ricardian Equivalence Hypothesis. These findings illustrate concentration towards the importance of fiscal policies in raising private consumption and controlling budget deficits, which are the prime goals of stabilization policies.

Suggested Citation

  • Waqas, Muhamad & Awan, Masood Sarwar & Aslam, Muhammad Amir, 2011. "We are living on the cost of our children," MPRA Paper 32044, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:32044
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/32044/1/MPRA_paper_32044.pdf
    File Function: original version
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Evans, Paul, 1993. "Consumers Are Not Ricardian: Evidence from Nineteen Countries," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 31(4), pages 534-548, October.
    2. Hall, Robert E, 1978. "Stochastic Implications of the Life Cycle-Permanent Income Hypothesis: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(6), pages 971-987, December.
    3. Barro, Robert J, 1989. "The Ricardian Approach to Budget Deficits," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 3(2), pages 37-54, Spring.
    4. Carlos Fonseca Marinheiro, "undated". "Ricardian Equivalence: An Empirical Application to the Portuguese Economy," International Economics Working Papers Series ces0112, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Economische Studiën, International Economics.
    5. Feldstein, Martin & Elmendorf, Douglas W, 1990. "Government Debt, Government Spending, and Private Sector Behavior Revisited: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(3), pages 589-599, June.
    6. Graham, Fred C, 1995. "Government Debt, Government Spending, and Private-Sector Behavior: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(5), pages 1348-1356, December.
    7. Barro, Robert J, 1980. "Federal Deficit Policy and the Effects of Public Debt Shocks," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 12(4), pages 747-762, November.
    8. Barro, Robert J, 1974. "Are Government Bonds Net Wealth?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(6), pages 1095-1117, Nov.-Dec..
    9. Aschauer, David Alan, 1989. "Is public expenditure productive?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 177-200, March.
    10. António Afonso, 2008. "Euler testing Ricardo and Barro in the EU," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 5(16), pages 1-14.
    11. Yoopi Abimanyu, 1998. "Using Indonesia's Real Exchange Rate to Test Ricardian Equivalence," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(3), pages 17-29.
    12. Barsky, Robert B & Mankiw, N Gregory & Zeldes, Stephen P, 1986. "Ricardian Consumers with Keynesian Propensities," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(4), pages 676-691, September.
    13. Modigliani, Franco & Sterling, Arlie, 1986. "Government Debt, Government Spending and Private Sector Behavior: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1168-1179, December.
    14. Kostas Drakos, 2001. "Testing the Ricardian Equivalence Theorem: Time Series Evidence from Greece," Journal of Economic Development, Chung-Ang Unviersity, Department of Economics, vol. 26(1), pages 149-160, June.
    15. Jesús Crespo Cuaresma & Gerhard Reitschuler, 2007. "Is the Ricardian Equivalence Proposition an ‘Aerie Fairy’ Theory for Europe?," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 74(296), pages 682-694, November.
    16. B. Douglas Bernheim, 1987. "Ricardian Equivalence: An Evaluation of Theory and Evidence," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1987, Volume 2, pages 263-316, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:5:y:2008:i:16:p:1-14 is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Roberto Ricciuti & Davide Di Laurea, 2003. "An experimental analysis of two departures from Ricardian equivalence," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 8(11), pages 1-11.
    19. Evans, Paul, 1988. "Are Consumers Ricardian? Evidence for the United States," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(5), pages 983-1004, October.
    20. Leiderman, Leonardo & Razin, Assaf, 1988. "Testing Ricardian Neutrality with an Intertemporal Stochastic Model," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 20(1), pages 1-21, February.
    21. Aschauer, David Alan, 1985. "Fiscal Policy and Aggregate Demand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(1), pages 117-127, March.
    22. Barro, Robert J, 1979. "On the Determination of the Public Debt," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(5), pages 940-971, October.
    23. Feldstein, Martin, 1982. "Government deficits and aggregate demand," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 1-20.
    24. Modigliani, Franco & Sterling, Arlie G, 1990. "Government Debt, Government Spending, and Private Sector Behavior: A Further Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(3), pages 600-603, June.
    25. Seater, John J, 1993. "Ricardian Equivalence," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 31(1), pages 142-190, March.
    26. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:5:y:2004:i:16:p:1-10 is not listed on IDEAS
    27. Kormendi, Roger C & Meguire, Philip G, 1995. "Government Debt, Government Spending, and Private-Sector Behavior: Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(5), pages 1357-1361, December.
    28. Graham, Fred C, 1993. "Fiscal Policy and Aggregate Demand: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(3), pages 659-666, June.
    29. Khalid, Ahmed M., 1996. "Ricardian equivalence: Empirical evidence from developing economies," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 413-432, December.
    30. Aschauer, David Alan, 1988. "The Equilibrium Approach to Fiscal Policy," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 20(1), pages 41-62, February.
    31. Aschauer, David Alan, 1993. "Fiscal Policy and Aggregate Demand: Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(3), pages 667-669, June.
    32. Evans, Paul, 1985. "Do Large Deficits Produce High Interest Rates?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(1), pages 68-87, March.
    33. Cardia, Emanuela, 1997. "Replicating Ricardian Equivalence Tests with Simulated Series," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(1), pages 65-79, March.
    34. Haque, Nadeem U & Montiel, Peter, 1989. "Consumption in Developing Countries: Tests for Liquidity Constraintsand Finite Horizons," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 71(3), pages 408-415, August.
    35. Jalal Siddiki, 2010. "The Ricardian equivalence hypothesis: evidence from Bangladesh," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(11), pages 1419-1435.
    36. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:8:y:2003:i:11:p:1-11 is not listed on IDEAS
    37. Feldstein, Martin, 1988. "The Effects of Fiscal Policies when Incomes Are Uncertain: A Contradiction to Ricardian Equivalence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(1), pages 14-23, March.
    38. Kormendi, Roger C, 1983. "Government Debt, Government Spending, and Private Sector Behavior," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(5), pages 994-1010, December.
    39. Hannes Kaadu & Lenno Uuskula, 2004. "Liquidity Constrains and Ricardian Equivalence in Estonia," Bank of Estonia Working Papers 2004-7, Bank of Estonia, revised 10 Oct 2004.
    40. Aqdas Ali Kazmi, 1992. "Ricardian Equivalence: Some Macro-econometric Tests for Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 31(4), pages 743-758.
    41. Kormendi, Roger C & Meguire, Philip, 1990. "Government Debt, Government Spending, and Private Sector Behavior: Reply and Update," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(3), pages 604-617, June.
    42. Agustín García & Julián Ramajo, 2005. "Fiscal policy and private consumption behaviour: The Spanish case," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 30(1), pages 115-135, January.
    43. Haug, Alfred A, 1996. "Blanchard's Model of Consumption: An Empirical Study," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 14(2), pages 169-177, April.
    44. Ghatak, Anita & Ghatak, Subrata, 1996. "Budgetary deficits and Ricardian equivalence: The case of India, 1950-1986," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 267-282, May.
    45. Fumio Hayashi, 1985. "Tests for Liquidity Constraints: A Critical Survey," NBER Working Papers 1720, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    46. Karl Whelan, 1991. "Ricardian equivalence and the Irish consumption function : the evidence re-examined," Open Access publications 10197/215, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
    47. Seater, John J. & Mariano, Roberto S., 1985. "New tests of the life cycle and tax discounting hypotheses," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 195-215, March.
    48. Anita Ghatak & Subrata Ghatak, "undated". "Budgetary Deficits and Ricardian Equivalence: The Case of India, 1950-1986," Discussion Papers in Public Sector Economics 96/3, Division of Economics, School of Business, University of Leicester.
    49. International Monetary Fund, 1987. "Fiscal Policy and Private Sector Saving Behavior: Tests of Ricardian Equivalence in Some Developing Economies," IMF Working Papers 1987/051, International Monetary Fund.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Waqas, Muhammad & Awan, Masood Sarwar, 2011. "Are Pakistani Consumers Ricardian?," MPRA Paper 35375, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Shaheen, Safana & Awan, Masood Sarwar & Waqas, Muhammad & Aslam, Muhammad Amir, 2011. "Financial Development, International Trade and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan," MPRA Paper 32876, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Muhammad Waqas & Masood Sarwar Awan, 2012. "Exchange Rate, Interest Rate and Ricardian Equivalence Evidence from Pakistan," Romanian Economic Journal, Department of International Business and Economics from the Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, vol. 0(SS), pages 249-269.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Brunila, Anne, 1997. "Current income and private consumption : Saving decisions : Testing the finite horizon model," Research Discussion Papers 6/1997, Bank of Finland.
    2. Waqas, Muhammad & Awan, Masood Sarwar, 2011. "Are Pakistani Consumers Ricardian?," MPRA Paper 35375, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Elmendorf, Douglas W. & Gregory Mankiw, N., 1999. "Government debt," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 25, pages 1615-1669, Elsevier.
    4. Brunila, Anne, 1996. "Fiscal policy and private consumption : Saving decisions : Evidence from Finland," Research Discussion Papers 28/1996, Bank of Finland.
    5. Roberto Ricciuti, 2003. "Assessing Ricardian Equivalence," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(1), pages 55-78, February.
    6. Koumparoulis, Dimitrios, 2006. "Ευρωπαϊκή Δημοσιονομική Πολιτική Και Οικονομική Μεγέθυνση: Η Νεοκλασική Οικονομική Θεωρία Για Την Περίπτωση Της Ελλάδας [European Fiscal Policy and Economic Growth: The Neoclassical Economic Theory," MPRA Paper 44310, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. António Afonso, 2001. "Government indebtedness and european consumers behaviour," Working Papers Department of Economics 2001/12, ISEG - Lisbon School of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, Universidade de Lisboa.
    8. António Afonso, 2008. "Euler testing Ricardo and Barro in the EU," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 5(16), pages 1-14.
    9. Francesco Forte & Cosimo Magazzino, 2015. "Ricardian equivalence and twin deficits hypotheses in the euro area," Journal of Social and Economic Development, Springer;Institute for Social and Economic Change, vol. 17(2), pages 148-166, October.
    10. B. Douglas Bernheim, 1987. "Ricardian Equivalence: An Evaluation of Theory and Evidence," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1987, Volume 2, pages 263-316, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Hannes Kaadu & Lenno Uuskula, 2004. "Liquidity Constrains and Ricardian Equivalence in Estonia," Bank of Estonia Working Papers 2004-7, Bank of Estonia, revised 10 Oct 2004.
    12. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:5:y:2008:i:16:p:1-14 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Gianluigi Giorgioni & Ken Holden, 2003. "Ricardian equivalence, expansionary fiscal contraction and the stock market: a VECM approach," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(12), pages 1435-1443.
    14. Krishanu Pradhan, 2016. "Ricardian Approach to Fiscal Sustainability in India," Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research, National Council of Applied Economic Research, vol. 10(4), pages 499-529, November.
    15. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:5:y:2004:i:16:p:1-10 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Tomas Wroblowsky, 2007. "Explaining the Variability of Debt Neutrality Tests Results: A Meta-Analysis of Ricardian Equivalence," South-Eastern Europe Journal of Economics, Association of Economic Universities of South and Eastern Europe and the Black Sea Region, vol. 5(1), pages 7-24.
    17. Aqdas Ali Kazmi, 1994. "Private Consumption, Government Spending, Debt Neutrality: Resolving Kormendi- Feldstein-Modigliani Controversy," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 33(4), pages 1055-1071.
    18. Tarlok Singh, 2017. "Ricardian equivalence and the public and private saving nexus in India," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(36), pages 3579-3598, August.
    19. Agustín García & Julián Ramajo, "undated". "Los Efectos De La Política Fiscal Sobre El Consumo Privado: Nueva Evidencia Para El Caso Español," Working Papers 13-02 Classification-JEL , Instituto de Estudios Fiscales.
    20. Reitschuler, Gerhard, 2008. "Assessing Ricardian equivalence for the New Member States: Does debt-neutrality matter?," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 119-128, June.
    21. Hayo, Bernd & Neumeier, Florian, 2017. "The (In)validity of the Ricardian equivalence theorem–findings from a representative German population survey," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 162-174.
    22. Lorenzo Pozzi, 2003. "Tax Discounting in a High‐debt Economy," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 65(3), pages 261-282, July.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Fiscal policy; Ricardian Equivalence; Pakistan;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • E6 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook
    • H53 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs
    • H6 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:32044. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vfmunde.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Joachim Winter (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/vfmunde.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.