Economic Liberalization and the Causal Relations among Money, Income, and Prices: The Case of Pakistan
This study re-examines the causal relations between money and the two variables, i.e., income and prices. Using annual data from 1959/60 to 2003/04, examining the stochastic properties of the variables used in the analysis, and taking care of the shifts in the series due to the start of the economic liberalization program in the early 1990s, we investigate the causal relations between real money and real income, between nominal money and nominal income, and between nominal money and prices. The analysis indicates, in general, the long run relationship among money, income, and prices. The analysis further suggests a one way causation from income to money in the long run implying that probably real factors rather than money supply has played a major role in increasing Pakistan’s national income. The study fails to find the active role of money in changing income even after taking care of possible shifts in these variables due to the economic reforms. As Regards the causal relationship between money and prices, the analysis suggests a unidirectional causality from money to prices implying monetary expansion increases inflation in Pakistan.
|Date of creation:||2006|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Ludwigstraße 33, D-80539 Munich, Germany|
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Sims, Christopher A, 1972. "Money, Income, and Causality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 540-52, September.
- Williams, David & Goodhart, C A E & Gowland, D H, 1976. "Money, Income, and Causality: The U.K. Experience," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 66(3), pages 417-23, June.
- James R. Barth & James T. Bennett, 1974. "The Role of Money in the Canadian Economy: An Empirical Test," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 7(2), pages 306-11, May.
- Kalbe Abbas, 1991. "Causality Test between Money and Income: A Case Study of Selected Developing Asian Countries (1960-1988)," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 30(4), pages 919-929.
- Schwert, G. William, 1987. "Effects of model specification on tests for unit roots in macroeconomic data," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 73-103, July.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:3195. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Joachim Winter)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.