Significant Shift in Causal Relations of Money, Income, and Prices in Pakistan: The price Hikes in the Early 1970s
This study extends the analysis of casuality by Husain and Rashid by taking care of the shift in the variables due to the price hikes in the early 1970s. We investigate the casual relations between real money and real income, between nominal money and nominal income, and between nominal money and prices using using the annual data set from 1959-60 to 2003-04, examining the stochastic properties of the variables used in the analysis and taking care of the expected shifts in the series through dummies. The analysis indicates significant shifts in the variables during the sample period. In this context, the shift of the early 1970s seems to be more important to be incorporated in the analysis. The study finds an active role of money in the Pakistani economy, as it is found to be the leading variable in changing prices without any feed back. In the case of income, the study finds the feed back mechanism of money, which is generally missing in the earlier studies probably because of not taking care of the shift in the macroeconomic variables in Pakistan in the early 1970s.
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- Schwert, G. William, 1987. "Effects of model specification on tests for unit roots in macroeconomic data," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 73-103, July.
- James R. Barth & James T. Bennett, 1974. "The Role of Money in the Canadian Economy: An Empirical Test," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 7(2), pages 306-311, May.
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