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Libéralisation commerciale et marché du travail : Cas de la Tunisie
[Trade liberalization and labor market: Case of Tunisia]


  • Bouoiyour, jamal


Tunisia is considered one of the best performing countries in terms of economic growth among countries in the Middle East and North Africa. During the past 30 years, this growth was 5% on average. At the same time, the country has opted very early for a very pronounced policy of opening to the outside, and the West in particular. It is attractive to link this performance in terms of growth to such liberalization. This paper shows clearly that this is not the case. Not only the liberalization has not produced the desired effects in terms of employment and wages (the effects are certainly positive, but remain very low and cover only the export-oriented sectors), but it has increased specialization in products intensive in labor and unskilled cheap, and whose technology content is low. Similarly, this policy has accentuated the inequalities between skilled workers and unskilled workers.

Suggested Citation

  • Bouoiyour, jamal, 2010. "Libéralisation commerciale et marché du travail : Cas de la Tunisie
    [Trade liberalization and labor market: Case of Tunisia]
    ," MPRA Paper 31358, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:31358

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
    2. Katz, Lawrence F. & Autor, David H., 1999. "Changes in the wage structure and earnings inequality," Handbook of Labor Economics,in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 26, pages 1463-1555 Elsevier.
    3. Markusen, James R., 1981. "Trade and the gains from trade with imperfect competition," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 531-551, November.
    4. Luis A. Rivera-Batiz & Paul M. Romer, 1991. "Economic Integration and Endogenous Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 531-555.
    5. Krugman, Paul R., 1979. "Increasing returns, monopolistic competition, and international trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 469-479, November.
    6. Jamal Bouoiyour & Hicham Hanchane & El Mouhoub Mouhoud, 2009. "Investissements directs étrangers et productivité. Quelles interactions dans le cas des pays du Moyen Orient et d'Afrique du Nord ?," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 60(1), pages 109-131.
    7. David H. Autor & Lawrence F. Katz & Melissa S. Kearney, 2008. "Trends in U.S. Wage Inequality: Revising the Revisionists," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(2), pages 300-323, May.
    8. repec:dau:papers:123456789/2026 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Baccouche, Rafik & Bouoiyour, Jamal & Hatem, M’Henni & Mouley, Sami, 2008. "Dynamique des investissements, mutations sectorielles et convertibilité du compte de capital : impacts des mesures de libéralisation et expériences comparées Tunisie - Maroc
      [Dynamics of investment
      ," MPRA Paper 38148, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. repec:dau:papers:123456789/12528 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
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    More about this item


    Trade liberalization; inequality; specialization;

    JEL classification:

    • F16 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Labor Market Interactions
    • F11 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Neoclassical Models of Trade

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