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Socio-economic Determinants of Household Food Insecurity in Pakistan


  • Asghar, Zahid
  • Muhammad, Ahmed


This study investigates the determinants of food insecurity for both general and farmer households. It is based on Pakistan Social and Living standard Measurement (PSLM) 2007-08 survey conducted by the Federal Bureau of Statistics, Pakistan. After having descriptive analysis of the important determinants of food insecurity, we have used logit model to find the probability for being household secure or insecure. The model is initially fitted with 16 (for general) and 19 (for farmer households) variables, selected from factors identified by previous researchers that affect food insecurity. Twelve out of 19 variables for farmer households are found to be significant such as household size, household size square, household income, number of rooms, dependency ratio, electricity connection, irrigation facility, age and age square of household head. To our surprise female education variable is insignificant for general household model. The results obtained are further analyzed to compute partial effects on continuous variables and change in the probabilities on discrete variables for the significant factors in the logistic models. Household size, education of household head, annual income and agricultural income are some of the most important factors influencing the household’s food insecurity status.

Suggested Citation

  • Asghar, Zahid & Muhammad, Ahmed, 2013. "Socio-economic Determinants of Household Food Insecurity in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 21510, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:21510

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Muhammad, Kabeer & Asghar, Zahid, 2012. "Multi-facet approach for food security in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 42891, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Uzma Iram & Muhammad S. Butt, 2004. "Determinants of household food security: An empirical analysis for Pakistan," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 31(8), pages 753-766, July.
    3. Haile, H.K. & Alemu, Zerihun Gudeta & Kudhlande, G., 2005. "Causes Of Household Food Insecurity In Koredegaga Peasant Association, Oromiya Zone, Ethiopia," Working Paper Series 28074, University of the Free State, Department of Agricultural Economics.
    4. Kidane, Habtom & Alemu, Zerihun Gudeta & Kundhlande, Godfrey, 2005. "Causes of household food insecurity in Koredegaga Peasant Association, Oromiya Zone, Ethiopia," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 44(4), pages 1-18, December.
    5. Faridi, Rushad & Wadood, Syed Naimul, 2010. "An Econometric Assessment of Household Food Security in Bangladesh," Bangladesh Development Studies, Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies (BIDS), vol. 33(3), pages 97-111, September.
    6. Rose, Donald & Gunderson, Craig & Oliveira, Victor, 1998. "Socio-Economic Determinants of Food Insecurity in the United States: Evidence from the SIPP and CSFII Datasets," Technical Bulletins 184377, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    7. Rose, Donald & Gundersen, Craig & Oliveira, Victor, 1998. "Socio-Economic Determinants of Food Insecurity in the United States: Evidence from the SIPP and CSFII Datasets," Technical Bulletins 156812, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    8. Asghar, Zahid, 2011. "Measuring Food Security for Pakistan Using 2007-08 HIES Data," MPRA Paper 34030, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    Cited by:

    1. Aziz, Noshaba & Nisar, Qasim Ali & Koondhar, Mansoor Ahmed & Meo, Muhammad Saeed & Rong, Kong, 2020. "Analyzing the women’s empowerment and food security nexus in rural areas of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan: By giving consideration to sense of land entitlement and infrastructural facilities," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 94(C).
    2. Nida Baig & Chen He & Shahbaz Khan & Salman Ali Shah, 2019. "CPEC and Food Security: Empirical Evidence From Pakistan," Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Macrothink Institute, vol. 9(1), pages 191-208, March.
    3. Sikha Karki & Paul Burton & Brendan Mackey & Clair Alston-Knox, 2021. "Status and drivers of food insecurity and adaptation responses under a changing climate among smallholder farmers households in Bagmati Province, Nepal," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 23(10), pages 14642-14665, October.
    4. Langat, Cheruiyot Peter, 2016. "Intrahousehold Decision Making And Implications On Food Security Among Smallholder Farmers In Chepalungu Constituency, Bomet County, Kenya," Research Theses 265575, Collaborative Masters Program in Agricultural and Applied Economics.
    5. Adeeba Ishaq & Mahmood Khalid & Eatzaz Ahmad, 2018. "Food Insecurity in Pakistan: A RegionWise Analysis of Trends," PIDE-Working Papers 2018:157, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    6. Kadir, Kadir & Prasetyo, Octavia Rizky & Rudiana, Eka, 2023. "Food Insecurity Experience Scale Measurement of Agricultural Households in Indonesia: Analysis of the Agricultural Integrated Survey Results," MPRA Paper 119416, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Osinubi, Tolulope Temilola & Apanisile, Olumuyiwa Tolulope, 2021. "Effect of Agricultural Investment On Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa: What Role Does Institution Play?," International Journal of Food and Agricultural Economics (IJFAEC), Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University, Department of Economics and Finance, vol. 9(2), April.

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    More about this item


    Food Security; Discrete Choice Model;

    JEL classification:

    • C1 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General
    • C5 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling
    • Q18 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy; Animal Welfare Policy

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