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Causal Ordering Between Inflation and Productivity of Labor and Capital: An Empirical Approach for Pakistan

Author

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  • Hussain, Karrar

Abstract

This study attempts to analyze the causal relationship between inflation and productivity of labor and capital, in Pakistan’s economy by covering the period from 1960-M1 to 2007-M12. For this purpose Vector Autoregression (VAR) approach is used, which is based on error correction model (ECM). Using this approach we have showed the causal ordering between inflation and exchange rate management policy controlling for, monetary variables like broad money (M-2) and discount rate, which are endogenous in case of Pakistan. We considered the relationship of inflation with two measures of productivity (average and marginal productivity) of labor and capital controlling for capital labor ratio. The objective of this paper is to identify the relative importance of each of these inflation channels by generating Impulse Response Functions (IRFs) to confirm the response of a shock on a variable upon itself and other variables over the four years of time span. Our study concludes that there is a unidirectional causality from inflation to labor productivity through capital labor ratio. And also, there is bidirectional causality between inflation and capital productivity through capital labor ratio. And lastly each channel takes almost fifteen months (on average) for input productivities to affect or affected by inflation.

Suggested Citation

  • Hussain, Karrar, 2009. "Causal Ordering Between Inflation and Productivity of Labor and Capital: An Empirical Approach for Pakistan," MPRA Paper 16486, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:16486
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/16797/1/MPRA_paper_16797.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Christopher F Baum & Sylvia Hristakeva, 2001. "DENTON: Stata module to interpolate a flow or stock series from low-frequency totals via proportional Denton method," Statistical Software Components S422501, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 17 Jul 2014.
    2. Fazal Husain & Tariq Mahmood, 1998. "Causality between Money and Prices: Evidence from Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 37(4), pages 1155-1161.
    3. Kandil, Magda & Mirazaie, Ida, 2004. "The Effects of Exchange Rate Fluctuations on Output and Prices: Evidence from Developing Countries," Journal of Developing Areas, Tennessee State University, College of Business, vol. 38(2), pages 189-219, January-M.
    4. Asif Idrees Agha & Noor Ahmed & Yasir Ali Mubarik & Hastam Shah, 2005. "Transmission Mechanism of Monetary Policy in Pakistan," SBP Research Bulletin, State Bank of Pakistan, Research Department, vol. 1, pages 1-23.
    5. Fazal Husain & Kalbe Abbas, 2000. "Money, Income, Prices, and Causality in Pakistan. A Trivariate Analysis," PIDE-Working Papers 2000:178, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    6. Noor Ahmed & Hastam Shah & Asif Idrees Agha & Yasir Ali Mubarik, 2005. "Transmission Mechanism of Monetary Policy in Pakistan," SBP Working Paper Series 09, State Bank of Pakistan, Research Department.
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    Cited by:

    1. Tariq Mahmood, 2015. "Mediating Effect of Advertising Expenditure on Labour Productivity - A Case of Manufacturing Industries in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 54(1), pages 1-15.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Productivity; Inflation; Vector Autoregression;

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • B22 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - History of Economic Thought since 1925 - - - Macroeconomics
    • C01 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - General - - - Econometrics

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