Multiplier Decomposition, Poverty and Inequality in Income Distribution in a SAM Framework: the Vietnamese Case
The aim of this paper is to show how and why is possible to assess both direct and indirect effects of exogenous income injections on mean income of different household groups using a new approach based on the decomposition of SAM-based multipliers. The approach we propose in this paper allows analyzing the level of inequality in the distribution of income linking the formation of individual/family income to the features of each country’s productive structure and it can be used both for structural analysis and for simulations of redistributive and antipoverty policies. The first step in order to link changes in the level of poverty and inequality to policy measures will be to derive the “accounting price multipliers matrix”, which allows considering the effects of policies affecting the labour market, thus changing the level of wages for different workers ‘categories. Using the traditional Pyatt and Round’s multiplicative decomposition method, we will be then able to disentangle the transfer, the open-loop and the closed-loop effects of a change in the income of exogenous SAM’s accounts. The second step will be to use a new technique introduced by Pyatt and Round (2006) to further decompose each element of the total multiplier matrix in order to enlighten in “microscopic detail” the linkages between each household group’s income of and other accounts whose income has been exogenously injected (i.e. Activities account and Factors account). Moreover, this new approach allows assessing the linkages between each household endowment in terms of factors and the features of the productive system and shading light on the most powerful links among different components of the economic system affecting the distribution of income. The empirical results obtained using the Vietnamese SAM for year 2000 show that the highest direct effects are related to exogenous injections to the agricultural sector and to less skilled labour force and that these effects involved not only on rural male headed but also other household groups. At the same time, the new type of multiplier decomposition shows which are the sectors and factors of production whose increase in income will have the greater indirect effects, increasing also the level of income of all household types. For example, investing in the sector of food processing and on female labour force will benefit the most all household groups, thus representing a policy option good for aggregate growth and for improving the distribution of income.
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- Hayden, Carol & Round, Jefferey I., 1982. "Developments in social accounting methods as applied to the analysis of income distribution and employment issues," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 10(6), pages 451-465, June.
- Jeffrey Round, 2003. "Constructing SAMs for Development Policy Analysis: Lessons Learned and Challenges Ahead," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(2), pages 161-183.
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- Pyatt, Graham & Round, Jeffrey I, 1977. "Social Accounting Matrices for Development Planning," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 23(4), pages 339-64, December.
- Graham Pyatt, 2001. "Some Early Multiplier Models of the Relationship between Income Distribution and Production Structure," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(2), pages 139-163.
- Tarp, Finn & Roland-Holst, David, 2002. "Household Income Determination in Vietnam: A Structural Analysis with Implications for Market Reform," MPRA Paper 29416, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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