IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Measuring the size of underground economy in Iran with emphasis on the incentives for evasion of insurance premium payment (1961 – 2001)

  • Nikopour, Hesam

This paper attempts to estimate the size of underground economy in Iran and to identify the elements having taken a role in the creation of the same for the period 1961-2001 by using modified currency ratio method as a monetary approach to the estimation of the size of underground economy. Regression model has been stipulated with the consideration of special economic circumstances prevailing in Iran. Currency ratio (circulating currency to total private sector bank deposits ratio) has been considered as a function of economic development (per capita income), inflation rate, the degree of urbanization (a measure of the development of financial institutions) and private consumption expenditures. Government expenditures to GDP ratio (a measure of government economic interventions), import tax burden, direct tax burden, social security tax burden and black market foreign exchange rate have been also considered as the indicators and variables reflecting underground economy. The model has been estimated by using an auto-regressive distributed lag (ARDL) method and the results are indicative of a high volume of such activities within the frameworks of the economy of Iran. The mean size of underground economy has been 27.76 percent of GDP during the period of study. Out of all the factors creating the underground economy, the size of government fraction of economy has had the greatest effect and social insurance burden has had the smallest one. Although the increase in insurance burden is in itself a factor in the creation of underground economy, in its turn has a striking negative impact on the performance and stability of social insurance funds.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/13176/1/MPRA_paper_13176.pdf
File Function: original version
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 13176.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: 09 Apr 2003
Date of revision: 05 Feb 2009
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:13176
Contact details of provider: Postal: Schackstr. 4, D-80539 Munich, Germany
Phone: +49-(0)89-2180-2219
Fax: +49-(0)89-2180-3900
Web page: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Bagachwa, M. S. D. & Naho, A., 1995. "Estimating the second economy in Tanzania," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(8), pages 1387-1399, August.
  2. Tedds, Lindsay, 2005. "The Underground Economy in Canada," MPRA Paper 4229, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. David E. A. Giles, 1998. "Measuring The Hidden Economy: Implications for Econometric Modelling," Econometrics Working Papers 9809, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
  4. Lindsay M. Tedds & David E. A. Giles, 2000. "Modelling the Underground Economies in Canada and New Zealand: A Comparative Analysis," Econometrics Working Papers 0003, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
  5. Cremer, Helmuth & Gahvari, Firouz, 1996. "Tax evasion and the optimum general income tax," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 235-249, May.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:13176. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.