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Defense spending and economic growth in Asian economies: A panel error-correction approach

  • Habibullah, M.S.
  • Law, Siong-Hook
  • Dayang-Afizzah, A.M.

Hoping to contribute to the existing pool of literature, this paper examines the relationship between military expenditure and economic growth in selected Asian countries for the period 1989 to 2004. Our panel unit root test suggests that real GDP per capita and military expenditures are )1(I processes, while the Larsson et al. (2001) panel cointegration test indicates that economic growth and military expendirues are cointegrated. Finally, applying the panel error-correction technique proposed by Pesaran et al. (1999), our empirical results show that defense spending and economic growth in the Asian countries under the period of study are not related.

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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 12105.

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Date of creation: 05 Jan 2008
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:12105
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  1. Nasir M. Khilji & Akhtar Mahmood, 1997. "Military Expenditures and Economic Growth in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(4), pages 791-808.
  2. Biswas, Basudeb & Ram, Rati, 1986. "Military Expenditures and Economic Growth in Less Developed Countries: An Augmented Model and Further Evidence," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 34(2), pages 361-72, January.
  3. Chung-Nang Lai & Bwo-Nung Huang & Chin-Wei Yang, 2005. "Defense spending and economic growth across the Taiwan straits: a threshold regression model," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(1), pages 45-57.
  4. Yongcheol Shin & Ron P Smith & Mohammad Hashem Pesaran, 1998. "Pooled Mean Group Estimation of Dynamic Heterogeneous Panels," ESE Discussion Papers 16, Edinburgh School of Economics, University of Edinburgh.
  5. Breitung, Jörg, 1999. "The local power of some unit root tests for panel data," SFB 373 Discussion Papers 1999,69, Humboldt University of Berlin, Interdisciplinary Research Project 373: Quantification and Simulation of Economic Processes.
  6. Frederiksen, P.C., 1991. "Economic Growth and Defense Spending: Evidence on Causality for Selected Asian Countries," Philippine Journal of Development JPD 1991 Vol. XVIII No. 1, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.
  7. LaCivita, Charles J. & Frederiksen, Peter C., 1991. "Defense spending and economic growth An alternative approach to the causality issue," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 117-126, January.
  8. Erdal Karagol & Serap Palaz, 2004. "Does defence expenditure deter economic growth in Turkey? A cointegration analysis," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 289-298.
  9. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
  10. Maddala, G S & Wu, Shaowen, 1999. " A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 631-52, Special I.
  11. Kollias, Christos & Manolas, George & Paleologou, Suzanna-Maria, 2004. "Defence expenditure and economic growth in the European Union: A causality analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 553-569, July.
  12. Deger, Saadet, 1986. "Economic Development and Defense Expenditure," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 35(1), pages 179-96, October.
  13. Joerding, Wayne, 1986. "Economic growth and defense spending : Granger Causality," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 35-40, April.
  14. Granger, C. W. J. & Newbold, P., 1974. "Spurious regressions in econometrics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 111-120, July.
  15. Yousif Khalifa Al-Yousif, 2002. "Defense Spending and Economic Growth: Some Empirical Evidence from the Arab Gulf Region," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(3), pages 187-197.
  16. Larsson, Rolf & Lyhagen, Johan & Löthgren, Mickael, 1998. "Likelihood-Based Cointegration Tests in Heterogeneous Panels," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 250, Stockholm School of Economics, revised 27 Aug 1998.
  17. Dakurah, A. Henry & Davies, Stephen P. & Sampath, Rajan K., 2001. "Defense spending and economic growth in developing countries: A causality analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 651-658, August.
  18. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
  19. Chien-Hsun Chen, 1993. "Causality between Defence Spending and Economic Growth: The Case of Mainland China," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 20(6), pages 37-43, October.
  20. Baltagi, Badi H & Pinnoi, Nat, 1995. "Public Capital Stock and State Productivity Growth: Further Evidence from an Error Components Model," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 351-59.
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