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Constructing Optimal Density Forecasts from Point Forecast Combinations

  • Luiz Renato Regis de Oliveira Lima
  • Wagner Piazza Gaglianone

Decision makers often observe point forecasts of the same variable computed, for instance, by commercial banks, IMF, World Bank, but the econometric models used by such institutions are unknown. This paper shows how to use the information available at point forecasts to compute optimal density forecasts. Our idea builds upon the combination of point forecasts under general loss functions and unknonwn forecast error distributions. We use real-time data to forecast the density of future in‡ation in the U.S. and our results indicate that the proposed method materially improves the real-time accuracy of density forecasts vis-à-vis the ones obtained from the (unknown) individual. econometric models.

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Paper provided by Programa de Pós-Graduação em Economia - PPGE, Universidade Federal da Paraíba in its series Série Textos para Discussão (Working Papers) with number 5.

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Date of creation: 2012
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Handle: RePEc:ppg:ppgewp:5
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  1. Christian Kascha & Francesco Ravazzolo, 2010. "Combining inflation density forecasts," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 29(1-2), pages 231-250.
  2. Elliott, Graham & Timmermann, Allan, 2004. "Optimal forecast combinations under general loss functions and forecast error distributions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 122(1), pages 47-79, September.
  3. Massimiliano Marcellino & James Stock & Mark Watson, 2005. "A Comparison of Direct and Iterated Multistep AR Methods for Forecasting Macroeconomic Time Series," Working Papers 285, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
  4. Alan Greenspan, 2004. "Risk and Uncertainty in Monetary Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(2), pages 33-40, May.
  5. Anne Sofie Jore & James Mitchell & Shaun Vahey, 2008. "Combining Forecast Densities from VARs with Uncertain Instabilities," Reserve Bank of New Zealand Discussion Paper Series DP2008/18, Reserve Bank of New Zealand.
  6. Geweke, John & Amisano, Gianni, 2010. "Comparing and evaluating Bayesian predictive distributions of asset returns," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 216-230, April.
  7. Clark, Todd E., 2011. "Real-Time Density Forecasts From Bayesian Vector Autoregressions With Stochastic Volatility," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 29(3), pages 327-341.
  8. Marco Aiolfi & Carlos Capistrán & Allan Timmermann, 2010. "Forecast Combinations," CREATES Research Papers 2010-21, School of Economics and Management, University of Aarhus.
  9. Christoffersen, Peter F. & Diebold, Francis X., 1997. "Optimal Prediction Under Asymmetric Loss," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(06), pages 808-817, December.
  10. repec:nsr:niesrd:320 is not listed on IDEAS
  11. Lima, Luiz Renato Regis de Oliveira & Issler, João Victor, 2007. "A Panel Data Approach to Economic Forecasting: The Bias-Corrected Average Forecast," Economics Working Papers (Ensaios Economicos da EPGE) 650, FGV/EPGE Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil).
  12. Hall, Stephen G. & Mitchell, James, 2007. "Combining density forecasts," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 1-13.
  13. Gianni Amisano & Raffaella Giacomini, 2005. "Comparing Density Forecsts via Weighted Likelihood Ratio Tests," Working Papers ubs0504, University of Brescia, Department of Economics.
  14. Patton, Andrew J. & Timmermann, Allan, 2007. "Testing Forecast Optimality Under Unknown Loss," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 102, pages 1172-1184, December.
  15. Giordani, Paolo & Villani, Mattias, 2009. "Forecasting Macroeconomic Time Series With Locally Adaptive Signal Extraction," Working Paper Series 234, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
  16. repec:nsr:niesrd:303 is not listed on IDEAS
  17. Koenker, Roger W & Bassett, Gilbert, Jr, 1978. "Regression Quantiles," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 33-50, January.
  18. Berkowitz, Jeremy, 2001. "Testing Density Forecasts, with Applications to Risk Management," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 19(4), pages 465-74, October.
  19. Clemen, Robert T., 1989. "Combining forecasts: A review and annotated bibliography," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 559-583.
  20. Adolfson, Malin & Lindé, Jesper & Villani, Mattias, 2005. "Forecasting Performance of an Open Economy Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium Model," Working Paper Series 190, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden), revised 01 Jun 2006.
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