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¿Existe discriminación en el mercado laboral de Lima Metropolitana? Un análisis experimental

  • Francisco Galarza

    ()

    (Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico)

  • Liuba Kogan

    ()

    (Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico)

  • Gustavo Yamada

    ()

    (Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico)

"En este documento,discutimos los resultados de nuestro estudio experimental, diseñado para identificar la existencia de discriminación en el mercado laboral de Lima Metropolitana. Este es un estudio pionero en el Perú en la obtención de evidencia estadística sólida sobre la existencia (o inexistencia) de discriminación en el mercado laboral, en términos de dos variables: apellidos de origen y sexo. A lo largo de varios meses, enviamos un total de 4820 currículos de vida (CV) ficticios como respuesta a vacantes laborales reales para tres tipos de categorías de empleos (profesionales, técnicos y no calificados), publicadas en el diario El Comercio. Para cada vacante laboral se enviaron cuatro CV con foto que mostrabanun capital humano similar en términos de educación y experiencia laboral, y solo variaron en el apellido de origen (andino o blanco) y el sexo (mujer u hombre). Usando la tasa de respuestas de los empleadores a nuestros postulantes ficticios como indicador para medir la discriminación (pues aquella no debería diferir estadísticamente entre nuestros cuatro tipos de postulantes), analizamos las diferencias en dichas tasas usando pruebas estadísticas de diferencias de medias y luego estimaciones econométricas. Las fotos incluidas en los CV fueron rankeadas en términos de belleza, de manera que también podemos analizar si la belleza tiene algún efecto sobre las tasas de respuesta. Sin controlar por la belleza de nuestros postulantes, encontramos que existe discriminación estadística en función del sexo (hombres reciben 15% más de llamadas que mujeres) y el apellido de origen (blancos reciben 45% más de llamadas que andinos) para todo el conjunto de datos. La magnitud de la discriminación por apellidos se reduce en un tercio cuando controlamos por la belleza de los postulantes."

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Paper provided by Departamento de Economía, Universidad del Pacífico in its series Working Papers with number 11-15.

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Length: 38 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2011
Date of revision: Dec 2011
Handle: RePEc:pai:wpaper:11-15
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.up.edu.pe/

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  1. Mobius, Markus & Rosenblat, Tanya, 2010. "Why Beauty Matters," Staff General Research Papers 32112, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  2. Hugo Nopo & Martin Moreno & Jaime Saavedra & Maximo Torero, 2003. "Gender and Racial Discrimination in Hiring: A Pseudo Audit Study for Three Selected Occupations in Metropolitan Lima," Middlebury College Working Paper Series 0404, Middlebury College, Department of Economics.
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  7. Dennis J. Aigner & Glen G. Cain, 1977. "Statistical theories of discrimination in labor markets," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 30(2), pages 175-187, January.
  8. Juan Pablo Atal & Hugo R. Ñopo & Natalia Winder, 2009. "New Century, Old Disparities: Gender and Ethnic Wage Gaps in Latin America," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 5398, Inter-American Development Bank.
  9. Marianne Bertrand & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2003. "Are emily and greg more employable than lakisha and jamal? A field experiment on labor market discrimination," Natural Field Experiments 00216, The Field Experiments Website.
  10. Carlsson, Magnus & Rooth, Dan-Olof, 2006. "Evidence of Ethnic Discrimination in the Swedish Labor Market Using Experimental Data," IZA Discussion Papers 2281, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  11. Gaviria, Alejandro & Medina, Carlos & Palau, María del Mar, 2010. "Las consecuencias económicas de un nombre atípico. El caso colombiano," El Trimestre Económico, Fondo de Cultura Económica, vol. 0(307), pages 535-556, julio-sep.
  12. Leo Kaas & Christian Manger, 2012. "Ethnic Discrimination in Germany's Labour Market: A Field Experiment," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 13(1), pages 1-20, 02.
  13. Petra Moser, 2008. "An Empirical Test of Taste-based Discrimination Changes in Ethnic Preferences and their Effect on Admissions to the NYSE during World War I," NBER Working Papers 14003, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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