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¿Existe discriminación en el mercado laboral de Lima Metropolitana? : un análisis experimental

Author

Listed:
  • Francisco Galarza

    (Universidad del Pacífico)

  • Liuba Kogan

    (Universidad del Pacífico)

  • Gustavo Yamada

    (Universidad del Pacífico)

Abstract

En este documento, discutimos los resultados de nuestro estudio experimental, diseñado para identificar la existencia de discriminación en el mercado laboral de Lima Metropolitana. Este es un estudio pionero en el Perú en la obtención de evidencia estadística sólida sobre la existencia (o inexistencia) de discriminación en el mercado laboral, en términos de dos variables: apellidos de origen y sexo. A lo largo de varios meses, enviamos un total de 4820 currículos de vida (CV) ficticios como respuesta a vacantes laborales reales para tres tipos de categorías de empleos (profesionales, técnicos y no calificados), publicadas en el diario El Comercio. Para cada vacante laboral se enviaron cuatro CV con foto que mostraban un capital humano similar en términos de educación y experiencia laboral, y solo variaron en el apellido de origen (andino o blanco) y el sexo (mujer u hombre). Usando la tasa de respuestas de los empleadores a nuestros postulantes ficticios como indicador para medir la discriminación (pues aquella no debería diferir estadísticamente entre nuestros cuatro tipos de postulantes), analizamos las diferencias en dichas tasas usando pruebas estadísticas de diferencias de medias y luego estimaciones econométricas. Las fotos incluidas en los CV fueron rankeadas en términos de belleza, de manera que también podemos analizar si la belleza tiene algún efecto sobre las tasas de respuesta. Sin controlar por la belleza de nuestros postulantes, encontramos que existe discriminación estadística en función del sexo (hombres reciben 15% más de llamadas que mujeres) y el apellido de origen (blancos reciben 45% más de llamadas que andinos) para todo el conjunto de datos. La magnitud de la discriminación por apellidos se reduce en un tercio cuando controlamos por la belleza de los postulantes.

Suggested Citation

  • Francisco Galarza & Liuba Kogan & Gustavo Yamada, 2011. "¿Existe discriminación en el mercado laboral de Lima Metropolitana? : un análisis experimental," Working Papers 11-15, Centro de Investigación, Universidad del Pacífico.
  • Handle: RePEc:pai:wpaper:11-15
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Keywords

    Mercado laboral; discriminación; experimentos; Lima;

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