Why is Immigrants’ Access to Employment lower in Montreal than in Toronto?
This paper explores reasons why the employment rate gap between immigrants and Canadian born individuals is larger in Montreal than in Toronto. A major reason is language: relative to Canadian born individuals, immigrants in Montreal are significantly less likely to know French than their Toronto counterparts to know English and their knowledge of French is less rewarded by employers than their Toronto counterparts’ knowledge of English. We also find that holding other factors constant, the performance of immigrants according to their countries of origin is remarkably similar in Montreal and Toronto: in both metropolitan areas, immigrants from Europe and India generally perform better than immigrants from China, Taiwan and Muslim countries. While we do not find any evidence that Quebec’s different immigration policy is causing the larger immigrant employment rate gap in Montreal, we cannot rule out the possibility that immigrants would be subject to more labour market discrimination in Montreal than in Toronto. However, this discrimination would be French language related as opposed to being ethnicity related. Results are generally similar for both male and female immigrants.
|Date of creation:||2010|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: PO Box 450, Station A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5|
Phone: (613) 562-5753
Fax: (613) 562-5999
Web page: http://www.socialsciences.uottawa.ca/eco/eng/index.asp
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bernt Bratsberg & James F. Ragan & Zafar M. Nasir, 2002. "The Effect of Naturalization on Wage Growth: A Panel Study of Young Male Immigrants," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(3), pages 568-597, July.
- Morissette, Rene & Frenette, Marc, 2003. "Will They Ever Converge? Earnings of Immigrants and Canadian-born Workers over the Last Two Decades," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2003215e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
- Picot, Garnett & Sweetman, Arthur, 2005. "The Deteriorating Economic Welfare of Immigrants and Possible Causes: Update 2005," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2005262e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
- Chiswick, Barry R, 1978. "The Effect of Americanization on the Earnings of Foreign-born Men," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(5), pages 897-921, October.
- David Albouy, 2008. "The Wage Gap between Francophones and Anglophones: A Canadian Perspective, 1970 to 2000," NBER Working Papers 14203, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Brahim Boudarbat & Maude Boulet, 2010. "Immigration au Québec : Politiques et intégration au marché du travail," CIRANO Project Reports 2010rp-05, CIRANO.
- Grenier, Gilles, 2001.
"Immigration, langues et performance économique : le Québec et l’Ontario entre 1970 et 1995,"
Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 77(3), pages 305-338, septembre.
- Grenier, G., 2000. "Immigration, langues et performance economique: le Quebec et l'Ontario entre 1970 et 1995," Working Papers 0006e, University of Ottawa, Department of Economics.
- Ugidos Olazabal, Arantza & Gardeazabal, Javier, 2002.
"More on Identification on Detailed Wage Decompositions,"
DFAEII Working Papers
2002-17, University of the Basque Country - Department of Foundations of Economic Analysis II.
- Javier Gardeazabal & Arantza Ugidos, 2004. "More on Identification in Detailed Wage Decompositions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(4), pages 1034-1036, November.
- Javier Gardeazabal & Aratza Ugidos, . "More on identification in detailed wage decompositions," Studies on the Spanish Economy 140, FEDEA.
- Joseph Schaafsma & Arthur Sweetman, 2001. "Immigrant earnings: age at immigration matters," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 34(4), pages 1066-1099, November.
- Krishna Pendakur & Ravi Pendakur, 1998. "The Colour of Money: Earnings Differentials Among Ethnic Groups in Canada," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 31(3), pages 518-548, August.
- Serge Nadeau, 2010. "Another Look at the Francophone Wage Gap in Canada: Public and Private Sectors, Quebec and Outside Quebec," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 36(2), pages 159-179, June.
- Abdurrahman Aydemir & Mikal Skuterud, 2004. "Explaining the Deteriorating Entry Earnings of Canada’s Immigrant," Labor and Demography 0409006, EconWPA.
- David E. Bloom & Gilles Grenier & Morley Gunderson, 1995.
"The Changing Labour Market Position of Canadian Immigrants,"
Canadian Journal of Economics,
Canadian Economics Association, vol. 28(4b), pages 987-1005, November.
- David E. Bloom & Gilles Grenier & Morley Gunderson, 1994. "The Changing Labor Market Position of Canadian Immigrants," NBER Working Papers 4672, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bloom, D. & Grenier, G. & Gunderson, M., 1993. "The Changing Labour Market Position of Canadian Immigrants," Working Papers 9305e, University of Ottawa, Department of Economics.
- Yun, Myeong-Su, 2003.
"A Simple Solution to the Identification Problem in Detailed Wage Decompositions,"
IZA Discussion Papers
836, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Myeong-Su Yun, 2005. "A Simple Solution to the Identification Problem in Detailed Wage Decompositions," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 43(4), pages 766-772, October.
- Sweetman, Arthur, 2004. "Immigrant Source Country Educational Quality and Canadian Labour Market Outcomes," Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series 2004234e, Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Branch.
- Antecol, Heather & Kuhn, Peter J. & Trejo, Stephen, 2003. "Assimilation via Prices or Quantities? Labor Market Institutions and Immigrant Earnings Growth in Australia, Canada, and the United States," IZA Discussion Papers 802, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ott:wpaper:1005e. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Diane Ritchot)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.