For a club such as the European Union, an important question is when, and under which conditions, a subset of the members should be allowed to form "inner clubs" and enhance cooperation. Flexible cooperation allows members to participate if and only if they benefit, but it generates a freerider problem if potential members choose to opt out. The analysis shows that flexible cooperation is better if the heterogeneity is large and the externality small. The best possible symmetric and monotonic participation mechanism, however, is implemented by two thresholds: A mandatory and a minimum participation rule. Rigid and flexible cooperation are both special cases of this mechanism. For each of these thresholds, the optimum is characterized.
|Date of creation:||Oct 2006|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science, Northwestern University, 580 Jacobs Center, 2001 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208-2014|
Web page: http://www.kellogg.northwestern.edu/research/math/
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:|| Email: |
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jacques Cremer & Thomas R. Palfrey, 2000.
"Federal Mandates by Popular Demand,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(5), pages 905-927, October.
- Ulrich Erlenmaier & Hans Gersbach, 2001. "Flexible Majority Rules," CESifo Working Paper Series 464, CESifo Group Munich.
- Carlo Carraro & Carmen Marchiori & Sonia Oreffice, 2003.
"Endogenous Minimum Participation in International Environmental Treaties,"
2003.113, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
- Carlo Carraro & Carmen Marchiori & Sonia Oreffice, 2009. "Endogenous Minimum Participation in International Environmental Treaties," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 42(3), pages 411-425, March.
- Carraro, Carlo & Marchiori, Carmen & Oreffice, Sonia, 2004. "Endogenous Minimum Participation in International Environmental Treaties," CEPR Discussion Papers 4281, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Thygesen, Niels, 1997. "Flexible integration and European monetary union," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(3-5), pages 451-459, April.
- Mathias Dewatripont & Francesco Giavazzi & Jürgen von Hagen & Ian Harden & Didier Baudewyns & Gérard Roland & Howard Rosenthal & André Sapir & Guido Tabellini, 1995. "Flexible integration: towards a more effective and democratic Europe," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9541, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Aghion, Philippe & Bolton, Patrick, 2003.
"Incomplete Social Contracts,"
4554123, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Burbidge, John B. & James A. DePater & Gordon M. Meyers & Abhijit Sengupta, 1997.
"A Coalition-Formation Approach to Equilibrium Federations and Trading Blocs,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 87(5), pages 940-56, December.
- John B. Burbidge & James A. DePater & Gordon M. Myers & Abhijit Sengupta, 1996. "A Coalition-formation Approach to Equilibrium Federations and Trading Block s," Department of Economics Working Papers 1996-05, McMaster University.
- Aghion, Philippe & Antras, Pol & Helpman, Elhanan, 2007.
"Negotiating free trade,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 1-30, September.
- Helpman, Elhanan & Antras, Pol & Aghion, Philippe, 2007. "Negotiating Free Trade," Scholarly Articles 3351239, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Philippe Aghion & Pol Antràs & Elhanan Helpman, 2004. "Negotiating Free Trade," NBER Working Papers 10721, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Oran R. Young, 2003. "Environment and Statecraft: The Strategy of Environmental Treaty-Making," Global Environmental Politics, MIT Press, vol. 3(1), pages 145-147, 02.
- Berglöf, Erik & Burkart, Mike & Friebel, Guido & Paltseva, Elena, 2012.
"Club-in-the-club: Reform under unanimity,"
Journal of Comparative Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 492-507.
- Alberto Alesina & Ignazio Angeloni & Federico Etro, 2005.
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 95(3), pages 602-615, June.
- Etro, Federico & Ageloni, Ignazio & Alesina, Alberto, 2005. "International Unions," Scholarly Articles 4553008, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Alberto Alesina & Ignazio Angeloni & Federico Etro, 2003. "International Unions," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 2001, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Alesina, Alberto F & Angeloni, Ignazio & Etro, Federico, 2003. "International Unions," CEPR Discussion Papers 3913, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Bård Harstad, 2005. "Majority Rules and Incentives," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 120(4), pages 1535-1568.
- Bård Harstad, 2007. "Harmonization and Side Payments in Political Cooperation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(3), pages 871-889, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nwu:cmsems:1428. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Fran Walker)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.