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Endogenous Minimum Participation in International Environmental Treaties

Author

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  • Carlo Carraro

    (University of Venice, CEPR, CEPS, CESifo and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei)

  • Carmen Marchiori

    (University College London and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei)

  • Sonia Oreffice

    (University of Chicago and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei)

Abstract

Many international treaties come into force only after a minimum number of countries have signed and ratified the treaty. Why do countries agree to introduce a minimum participation constraint among the rules characterising an international treaty? This question is particularly relevant in the case of environmental treaties dealing with global commons, where free-riding incentives are strong. Is a minimum participation rule a way to offset these free-riding incentives? Why do countries that know they have an incentive to free-ride accept to “tie their hands” through the introduction of a minimum participation constraint? This paper addresses the above questions by analysing a three-stage non-cooperative coalition formation game. In the first stage, countries set the minimum coalition size that is necessary for the treaty to come into force. In the second stage, countries decide whether to sign the treaty. In the third stage, the equilibrium values of the decision variables are set. At the equilibrium, both the minimum participation constraint and the number of signatories – the coalition size – are determined. This paper shows that a non-trivial partial coalition, sustained by a binding minimum participation constraint, forms at the equilibrium. This paper thus explains why in international negotiations all countries often agree on a minimum participation rule even when some of them do not intend to sign the treaty. The paper also analyses the optimal size of the minimum participation constraint.

Suggested Citation

  • Carlo Carraro & Carmen Marchiori & Sonia Oreffice, 2003. "Endogenous Minimum Participation in International Environmental Treaties," Working Papers 2003.113, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  • Handle: RePEc:fem:femwpa:2003.113
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Bard Harstad, 2006. "Flexible Integration," Discussion Papers 1428, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
    2. David M. McEvoy & Todd L. Cherry & John K. Stranlund, 2011. "The Endogenous Formation of Coalitions to Provide Public Goods: Theory and Experimental Evidence," Working Papers 2011-2, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Resource Economics.
    3. Michael Hoel & Aart Zeeuw, 2010. "Can a Focus on Breakthrough Technologies Improve the Performance of International Environmental Agreements?," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 47(3), pages 395-406, November.
    4. Mao, Liang, 2017. "A Note on Stable Cartels," MPRA Paper 83982, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 18 Jan 2018.
    5. Pierre Courtois & Guillaume Haeringer, 2012. "Environmental cooperation: ratifying second-best agreements," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 151(3), pages 565-584, June.
    6. Peter H. Egger & Christoph Jessberger & Mario Larch, 2013. "Impacts of Trade and the Environment on Clustered Multilateral Environmental Agreements," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(3), pages 331-348, March.
    7. Kohnz, Simone, 2006. "Ratification quotas in international agreements," Discussion Papers in Economics 900, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
    8. Michael Finus & Bianca Rundshagen, 2003. "How the Rules of Coalition Formation Affect Stability of International Environmental Agreements," Working Papers 2003.62, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    9. Bard Harstad, 2006. "Flexible Integration? Mandatory and Minimum Participation Rules," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 108(4), pages 683-702, December.
    10. Kai Lessmann & Robert Marschinski & Michael Finus & Ulrike Kornek & Ottmar Edenhofer, 2014. "Emissions Trading with Non-signatories in a Climate Agreement—an Analysis of Coalition Stability," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 82, pages 82-109, December.
    11. David M. McEvoy & John K. Stranlund, 2006. "Enforcing ‘Self-Enforcing’ International Environmental Agreements," Working Papers 2006-6, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Resource Economics.
    12. EYCKMANS, Johan & FINUS, Michael, 2003. "Coalition formation in a global warming game : how the design of protocols affects the success of environmental treaty-making," CORE Discussion Papers 2003088, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
    13. Valentina Bosetti & Carlo Carraro & Alessandra Sgobbi & Massimo Tavoni, 2008. "Modelling Economic Impacts of Alternative International Climate Policy Architectures. A Quantitative and Comparative Assessment of Architectures for Agreement," CESifo Working Paper Series 2417, CESifo Group Munich.
    14. Leo Wangler & Juan-Carlos Altamirano-Cabrera & Hans-Peter Weikard, 2013. "The political economy of international environmental agreements: a survey," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 387-403, September.
    15. David McEvoy & John Stranlund, 2009. "Self-enforcing International Environmental Agreements with Costly Monitoring for Compliance," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 42(4), pages 491-508, April.
    16. Dritan Osmani & Richard Tol, 2010. "The Case of two Self-Enforcing International Agreements for Environmental Protection with Asymmetric Countries," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 36(2), pages 93-119, August.
    17. Michael Finus, 2004. "Modesty Pays: Sometimes!," Working Papers 2004.68, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    18. Michael Finus & Bianca Rundshagen, 2009. "Membership rules and stability of coalition structures in positive externality games," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer;The Society for Social Choice and Welfare, vol. 32(3), pages 389-406, March.
    19. David McEvoy, 2013. "Enforcing compliance with international environmental agreements using a deposit-refund system," International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 13(4), pages 481-496, November.
    20. Carlo Carraro & Carmen Marchiori, 2003. "Stable coalitions," Chapters,in: The Endogenous Formation of Economic Coalitions, chapter 5 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    21. Olivier Bos & Béatrice Roussillon & Paul Schweinzer, 2016. "Agreeing on Efficient Emissions Reduction," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 118(4), pages 785-815, October.
    22. Fabio Sferra & Massimo Tavoni, 2013. "Endogenous Participation in a Partial Climate Agreement with Open Entry: A Numerical Assessment," Working Papers 2013.60, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    23. Michèle Breton & Lucia Sbragia & Georges Zaccour, 2010. "A Dynamic Model for International Environmental Agreements," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 45(1), pages 25-48, January.
    24. Beard, Rodney & Mallawaarachchi, Thilak, 2011. "Are international environmental agreements stable ex-post?," MPRA Paper 34303, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    25. Gerber, Anke & Neitzel, Jakob & Wichardt, Philipp C., 2013. "Minimum participation rules for the provision of public goods," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 209-222.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Agreements; Climate; Negotiations; Policy; Incentives;

    JEL classification:

    • H0 - Public Economics - - General
    • H4 - Public Economics - - Publicly Provided Goods

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