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Marketization of Production and the US-Europe Employment Gap

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  • Richard B. Freeman
  • Ronald Schettkat

Abstract

Women work much more in the US than in Germany and most other EU economies. We find that the US-German employment gap is not strongly related to cross-country differences in the level of pay or social benefits. The difference in employment is due to the different marketization of activities between the two economies: German women work as many hours as US women when we consider time spent in household production as well as in market production. For instance, German women spend more time preparing meals while US women use take-out and restaurants more intensely. The organization of some social activities, such as schooling, and the dispersion of skills, as well as pay differences, affect the degree of marketization.

Suggested Citation

  • Richard B. Freeman & Ronald Schettkat, 2002. "Marketization of Production and the US-Europe Employment Gap," NBER Working Papers 8797, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:8797
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Scharpf, Fritz W., 1997. "Employment and the welfare state: A continental dilemma," MPIfG Working Paper 97/7, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies.
    2. Nickell, Stephen & Redding, Stephen J. & Swaffield, Joanna K, 2001. "Educational Attainment, Labour Market Institutions and the Structure of Production," CEPR Discussion Papers 3068, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Nickell, Stephen & Bell, Brian, 1996. "Changes in the Distribution of Wages and Unemployment in OECD Countries," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(2), pages 302-308, May.
    4. Lawrence F. Katz & Gary W. Loveman & David G. Blanchflower, 1995. "A Comparison of Changes in the Structure of Wages in Four OECD Countries," NBER Chapters, in: Differences and Changes in Wage Structures, pages 25-66, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • R14 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Land Use Patterns
    • J01 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General - - - Labor Economics: General

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