Mergers, Station Entry, and Programming Variety in Radio Broadcasting
Free entry into markets with decreasing average costs and differentiated products can result in an inefficient number of firms and suboptimal product variety. Because new firms and products draw their customers in part from existing products, concentration can affect incentives to enter as well as how to position products. This paper examines how product variety in the radio industry is affected by changes in ownership structure. While it is in general difficult to measure the effect of concentration on other factors such as the number of products and the extent of product variety, the 1996 Telecommunications Act substantially relaxed local radio ownership restrictions, giving rise to a major and exogenous consolidation wave. Between 1993 and 1997 the average Herfindahl index in major US media markets increased by almost 65 percent. Using a panel data set on 243 U.S. radio broadcast markets in 1993 and 1997, we find that concentration reduces entry and increases product variety. Our results are consistent with spatial preemption. Jointly owned stations broadcasting from the same market are more likely than unrelated stations - and more likely than jointly owned stations in different markets - to broadcast in similar formats.
|Date of creation:||Apr 1999|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||Published as "Free Entry and Social Inefficiency in Radio Broadcasting", RAND Journal of Economics, Vol. 30, no. 3 (Autumn 1999): 397-420.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.|
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Anderson, Simon P & de Palma, Andre & Nesterov, Yurii, 1995.
"Oligopolistic Competition and the Optimal Provision of Products,"
Econometric Society, vol. 63(6), pages 1281-1301, November.
- ANDERSON, Simon P. & DE PALMA, André & NESTEROV, Yurii, 1994. "Oligopolistic Competition and the Optimal Provision of Products," CORE Discussion Papers 1994034, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Anderson, S. P. & De Palma, A. & Nesterov, Y., . "Oligopolistic competition and the optimal provision of products," CORE Discussion Papers RP 1179, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Kenneth L. Judd, 1985.
"Credible Spatial Preemption,"
RAND Journal of Economics,
The RAND Corporation, vol. 16(2), pages 153-166, Summer.
- Michael Spence, 1976. "Product Selection, Fixed Costs, and Monopolistic Competition," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 43(2), pages 217-235.
- Richard Schmalensee, 1978. "Entry Deterrence in the Ready-to-Eat Breakfast Cereal Industry," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 9(2), pages 305-327, Autumn.
- Steven Berry & Joel Waldfogel, 1996.
"Free Entry and Social Inefficiency in Radio Broadcasting,"
NBER Working Papers
5528, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Steven T. Berry & Joel Waldfogel, 1999. "Free Entry and Social Inefficiency in Radio Broadcasting," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 30(3), pages 397-420, Autumn.
- Steven T. Berry & Joel Waldfogel, 1997.
"Public Radio in the United States: Does It Correct Market Failure or Cannibalize Commercial Stations?,"
NBER Working Papers
6057, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Berry, Steven T. & Waldfogel, Joel, 1999. "Public radio in the United States: does it correct market failure or cannibalize commercial stations?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 189-211, February.
- N. Gregory Mankiw & Michael D. Whinston, 1986. "Free Entry and Social Inefficiency," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 17(1), pages 48-58, Spring.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:7080. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.