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A Test of the International CAPM Using Business Cycles Indicators as Instrumental Variables

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  • Bernard Dumas

Abstract

Previous work by Dumas and Solnik (1993) has shown that a CAPM which incorporates foreign-exchange risk premia (a so-called 'international CAPM') is better capable empirically of explaining the structure of worldwide rates of return than does the classic CAPM. In the specification of that test, moments of rates of return were allowed to vary over time in relation to a number of lagged 'instrumental variables'. Dumas and Solnik used instrumental variables which were endogenous or 'internal' to the financial market (lagged world market portfolio rate of return, dividend yield, bond yield, short-term rate of interest). In the present paper, I use as instruments economic variables which are 'external' to the financial market, such as leading indicators of the business cycles. This is an attempt to explain the behavior of the international stock market on the basis of economically meaningful variables which capture 'the state of the economy'. I find that the leading indicators put together by Stock and Watson (NBER working paper no. 4014, 1992) as predictors of the U.S. business cycle also predict stock returns in the U.S., Germany, Japan and the United Kingdom. These instruments lead again to a rejection of the classic CAPM and no rejection of the international CAPM.

Suggested Citation

  • Bernard Dumas, 1994. "A Test of the International CAPM Using Business Cycles Indicators as Instrumental Variables," NBER Working Papers 4657, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:4657
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Fratzscher, Marcel, 2002. "Financial Market Integration in Europe: On the Effects of EMU on Stock Markets," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 7(3), pages 165-193, July.
    2. Mohamed El Hedi Arouri, 2005. "Intégration financière et diversification internationale des portefeuilles," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 168(2), pages 115-132.
    3. Phylaktis, Kate & Ravazzolo, Fabiola, 2004. "Currency risk in emerging equity markets," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 317-339, September.
    4. Fernandez Viviana P, 2005. "The International CAPM and a Wavelet-Based Decomposition of Value at Risk," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 9(4), pages 1-37, December.
    5. Dumas, Bernard & Harvey, Campbell R. & Ruiz, Pierre, 2003. "Are correlations of stock returns justified by subsequent changes in national outputs?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 777-811, November.
    6. Joaquim Andrade & Vladimir Teles, 2006. "An empirical model of the Brazilian country risk -- an extension of the beta country risk model," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(11), pages 1271-1278.
    7. Marina Tkalec, 2015. "Time-Varying Integration In European Post-Transition Sovereign Bond Markets," Proceedings of Economics and Finance Conferences 2204231, International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences.
    8. Marina Emiris, 2002. "Measuring capital market integration," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), Market functioning and central bank policy, volume 12, pages 200-221, Bank for International Settlements.
    9. Gangemi, Michael A. M. & Brooks, Robert D. & Faff, Robert W., 2000. "Modeling Australia's country risk: a country beta approach," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 259-276.
    10. Al-Mohamed, Somar & Elkanj, Nasser & Gangopadhyay, Partha, 2018. "Time-Varying Integration of MENA Stock Markets," International Journal of Development and Conflict, Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics, vol. 8(2), pages 85-114.
    11. Gangemi, Michael & Brooks, Robert & Faff, Robert, 1999. "Mean reversion and the forecasting of country betas: a note," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 231-245.
    12. Chambet, Anthony & Gibson, Rajna, 2008. "Financial integration, economic instability and trade structure in emerging markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 654-675, June.
    13. Gibson, Rajna & Mougeot, Nicolas, 2004. "The pricing of systematic liquidity risk: Empirical evidence from the US stock market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 157-178, January.
    14. Bekaert, Geert & Harvey, Campbell R, 1995. "Time-Varying World Market Integration," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(2), pages 403-444, June.
    15. Posedel Šimović, Petra & Tkalec, Marina & Vizek, Maruška & Lee, Junsoo, 2016. "Time-varying integration of the sovereign bond markets in European post-transition economies," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 30-40.
    16. Wayne E. Ferson & Campbell R. Harvey, 1999. "Economic, Financial, and Fundamental Global Risk In and Out of the EMU," NBER Working Papers 6967, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Mika Vaihekoski, 2000. "Unconditional international asset pricing models: empirical tests," Finnish Economic Papers, Finnish Economic Association, vol. 13(2), pages 71-88, Autumn.
    18. Bange, Mary M. & Khang, Kenneth & Miller Jr., Thomas W., 2008. "Benchmarking the performance of recommended allocations to equities, bonds, and cash by international investment houses," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 363-386, June.
    19. Peter Shyan-Rong Chou & Yin-Ching Jan & Mao-Wei Hung, 2002. "The world price of exchange risk in the Pacific Basin equity markets," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(5), pages 361-370.

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    JEL classification:

    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates

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