Corporate-Finance Benefits from Universal Banking: Germany and the United States, 1870-1914
Limitations on bank consolidation and branching in the United States at an early date effectively limited the scope of commercial banks and their involvement in financing large-scale industry, and increased information and transaction costs of issuing securities. In contrast, German industry was financed by large-scale universal banks who maintained long-term relationships with firms, involving ongoing monitoring and disciplining of management, and underwriting. Low costs of German industrial finance are reflected in lower investment banking spreads on securities issues and a higher propensity to issue equity relative to the United States.
|Date of creation:||Jul 1993|
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|Publication status:||published as Charles W. Calomiris, 1993. "Corporate-finance benefits from universal banking: Germany and the United States, 1870-1917," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue May, pages 450-464.|
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