What Do We Know about Enterprise Zones?
In the last decade, most states have targeted certain depressed areas for revitalization by providing a combination of labor and capital tax incentives to firms operating in an "enterprise zone" (EZ). A partial equilibrium model is used to analyze the theoretical effects of various EZ incentives on zone wages and employment. I review empirical evidence on the operational success of EZ programs in Britain and the U.S., and present new evidence from the 1990 Census on the success of the Indiana program. Most British zone businesses are relocations, with an annual cost per job of approximately $15,000. U.S. surveys find that much zone activity comes from expansions of existing businesses, with the average cost per zone job ranging from $4,564 to $13,000 annually (about $31,113 per zone resident job). How do zones perform relative to what would have been their performance in the absence of zone designation? Evidence on this issue is summarized for the state of Indiana, where the zone program appears to have increased inventory investment and reduced unemployment claims. But new evidence based on the 1990 Census of Population indicates that the economic well-being of zone residents in Indiana has not appreciably improved.
|Date of creation:||Jan 1993|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published as What Do We Know about Enterprise Zones? , Leslie E. Papke. in Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 7 , Poterba. 1993|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.|
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Charles L. Ballard & Don Fullerton & John B. Shoven & John Whalley, 1985.
"A General Equilibrium Model for Tax Policy Evaluation,"
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number ball85-1, 08.
- Ballard, Charles L. & Fullerton, Don & Shoven, John B. & Whalley, John, 2009. "A General Equilibrium Model for Tax Policy Evaluation," National Bureau of Economic Research Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 0, number 9780226036335, March.
- Bartik, Timothy J, 1985. "Business Location Decisions in the United States: Estimates of the Effects of Unionization, Taxes, and Other Characteristics of States," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 3(1), pages 14-22, January.
- R A Erickson & S W Friedman, 1990. "Enterprise zones: 1. Investment and job creation of state government programs in the United States of America," Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 8(3), pages 251-267, June.
- McLure, Charles E, Jr, 1970. "Taxation, Substitution, and Industrial Location," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 78(1), pages 112-32, Jan.-Feb..
- N/A, 1985. "General Policy," India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs, Indian Council of World Affairs, vol. 41(1), pages 74-79, January.
- Michael Brintnall & Roy E. Green, 1988. "Comparing State Enterprise Zone Programs: Variations in Structure and Coverage," Economic Development Quarterly, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, vol. 2(1), pages 50-68, February.
- Charles L. Ballard & Don Fullerton & John B. Shoven & John Whalley, 1985. "Introduction to "A General Equilibrium Model for Tax Policy Evaluation"," NBER Chapters, in: A General Equilibrium Model for Tax Policy Evaluation, pages 1-5 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Chinhui Juhn & Kevin M. Murphy & Robert H. Topel, 1991. "Why Has the Natural Rate of Unemployment Increased over Time?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 22(2), pages 75-142.
- Bradford, David F., 1978. "Factor prices may be constant but factor returns are not," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 199-203.
- N/A, 1985. "General Policy," India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs, Indian Council of World Affairs, vol. 41(1), pages 112-117, January.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:4251. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.