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Cities in Space: Three Simple Models

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  • Paul Krugman

Abstract

Urban agglomerations arise at least in part out of the interaction between economies of scale in production and market size effects. This paper develops a simple spatial framework to develop illustrative models of the determinants of urban location, of the number and size of cities, and of the degree of urbanization. A Central theme is the probable existence of multiple equilibria, and the dependence of the range of potential outcomes on a few key parameters.

Suggested Citation

  • Paul Krugman, 1991. "Cities in Space: Three Simple Models," NBER Working Papers 3607, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:3607
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    1. Krugman, Paul, 1991. "Increasing Returns and Economic Geography," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(3), pages 483-499, June.
    2. Murphy, Kevin M & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1989. "Industrialization and the Big Push," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(5), pages 1003-1026, October.
    3. Henderson, J. Vernon, 1991. "Urban Development: Theory, Fact, and Illusion," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195069020.
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    1. Klodt, Henning & Paqué, Karl-Heinz, 1993. "Am Tiefpunkt der Transformationskrise: Industrie- und lohnpolitische Weichenstellungen in den jungen Bundesländern," Kiel Discussion Papers 213, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel).
    2. Glaeser, Edward L & Hedi D. Kallal & Jose A. Scheinkman & Andrei Shleifer, 1992. "Growth in Cities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(6), pages 1126-1152, December.
      • Edward L. Glaeser & Hedi D. Kallal & Jose A. Scheinkman & Andrei Shleifer, 1991. "Growth in Cities," NBER Working Papers 3787, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
      • Glaeser, Edward Ludwig & Kallal, Hedi D. & Scheinkman, Jose A. & Shleifer, Andrei, 1992. "Growth in Cities," Scholarly Articles 3451309, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    3. García, Jorge H. & Garmestani, Ahjond S. & Karunanithi, Arunprakash T., 2011. "Threshold transitions in a regional urban system," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 78(1), pages 152-159.
    4. Oana Mionel & Viorel Mionel & Cristina Mihaescu, 2014. "The Role of Urban Financial Centers within the Economy of Global Cities," Acta Universitatis Danubius. OEconomica, Danubius University of Galati, issue 10(3), pages 155-168, June.
    5. Muhammad Imran & An HuSen & Muhammad Kaleem & Arshad Khan Bangash & Nizam Ud Din & Sobia, 2020. "Effect of regional factor productivity on manufacturing sector: The case of Sino-Pak economic ties," Financial Innovation, Springer;Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, vol. 6(1), pages 1-14, December.
    6. Ana-Maria Hlaciuc, 2016. "Arguments To Justify Euro - Advantages And Limitations," EcoForum, "Stefan cel Mare" University of Suceava, Romania, Faculty of Economics and Public Administration - Economy, Business Administration and Tourism Department., vol. 5(Special I), pages 1-8, august.
    7. Aleksander Noworól & Piotr Kopyciński & Paweł Hałat & Jeremiasz Salamon & Artur Hołuj, 2022. "The 15-Minute City—The Geographical Proximity of Services in Krakow," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(12), pages 1-34, June.
    8. Gurrieri, Antonia Rosa, 2013. "Networking entrepreneurs," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 193-204.

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