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How Risky is the Debt in Highly Leveraged Transactions? Evidence from Public Recapitalizations

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  • Steven N. Kaplan
  • Jeremy C. Stein

Abstract

This paper presents estimates of the systematic risk of the debt in public leveraged recapitalizations. We calculate the systematic risk of the debt as a function of the difference between the systematic equity risk before and after the recapitalization. The increase in equity risk is surprisingly small after a recapitalization, ranging from 28% to 52% depending on the estimation method. Under the assumption that total company risk is unchanged, the implied systematic risk of the post-recapitalization debt in twelve transactions averages 0.67. Under the alternative assumption that the entire market adjusted premium in the leveraged recapitalization represents a reduction in fixed costs, the implied systematic risk of this debt averages 0.42.

Suggested Citation

  • Steven N. Kaplan & Jeremy C. Stein, 1990. "How Risky is the Debt in Highly Leveraged Transactions? Evidence from Public Recapitalizations," NBER Working Papers 3390, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:3390
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    1. Scholes, Myron & Williams, Joseph, 1977. "Estimating betas from nonsynchronous data," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 309-327, December.
    2. Steven Kaplan, 1989. "Management Buyouts: Evidence on Taxes as a Source of Value," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(3), pages 611-632, July.
    3. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-329, May.
    4. Altman, Edward I, 1989. " Measuring Corporate Bond Mortality and Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(4), pages 909-922, September.
    5. Kaplan, Steven, 1989. " Management Buyouts: Evidence on Taxes as a," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(3), pages 611-632, July.
    6. Baldwin, Carliss Y & Mason, Scott P, 1983. " The Resolution of Claims in Financial Distress: The Case of Massey Ferguson," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(2), pages 505-516, May.
    7. Dimson, Elroy, 1979. "Risk measurement when shares are subject to infrequent trading," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 197-226, June.
    8. repec:bla:joares:v:28:y:1990:i:1:p:25-48 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Jensen, Michael C, 1988. "Takeovers: Their Causes and Consequences," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 2(1), pages 21-48, Winter.
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    Cited by:

    1. Steven N. Kaplan & Jeremy C. Stein, 1991. "The Evolution of Buyout Pricing and Financial Structure," NBER Working Papers 3695, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Michael C. Jensen, 2010. "The Modern Industrial Revolution, Exit, and the Failure of Internal Control Systems," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 22(1), pages 43-58.
    3. Brent Glover & Joao Gomes & Amir Yaron, "undated". "Corporate Taxes, Leverage, and Business Cycles," GSIA Working Papers 2011-E24, Carnegie Mellon University, Tepper School of Business.
    4. Narasimhan Jegadeesh & Roman Kräussl & Joshua M. Pollet, 2015. "Risk and Expected Returns of Private Equity Investments: Evidence Based on Market Prices," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 28(12), pages 3269-3302.
    5. Maquieira, Carlos P. & Megginson, William L. & Nail, Lance, 1998. "Wealth creation versus wealth redistributions in pure stock-for-stock mergers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 3-33, April.
    6. Chang, Sean Tat & Ross, Donald, 2016. "Debt covenants and credit spread valuation: The special case of Chinese global bonds," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 27-44.
    7. Amilcar A. Menichini, 2017. "On the value and determinants of the interest tax shields," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 48(3), pages 725-748, April.
    8. Harold M. Somers, 1991. "Leverage: The Tax Incentives," UCLA Economics Working Papers 625, UCLA Department of Economics.
    9. Peter Reichling & Anastasiia Zbandut, 2017. "Costs of capital under credit risk," FEMM Working Papers 170003, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Faculty of Economics and Management.

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