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The 9/11 Dust Cloud and Pregnancy Outcomes: A Reconsideration

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  • Janet Currie
  • Hannes Schwandt

Abstract

The events of 9/11 released a million tons of toxic dust into lower Manhattan, an unparalleled environmental disaster. It is puzzling then that the literature has shown little effect of fetal exposure to the dust. However, inference is complicated by pre-existing differences between the affected mothers and other NYC mothers as well as heterogeneity in effects on boys and girls. Using all births in utero on 9/11 in NYC and comparing them to their siblings, we show that residence in the affected area increased prematurity, low birth weight, and admission to the NICU after birth, especially for boys.

Suggested Citation

  • Janet Currie & Hannes Schwandt, 2014. "The 9/11 Dust Cloud and Pregnancy Outcomes: A Reconsideration," NBER Working Papers 20368, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:20368
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    1. Currie, Janet & Rossin-Slater, Maya, 2013. "Weathering the storm: Hurricanes and birth outcomes," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 487-503.
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    6. Kenneth Y. Chay & Michael Greenstone, 2003. "The Impact of Air Pollution on Infant Mortality: Evidence from Geographic Variation in Pollution Shocks Induced by a Recession," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(3), pages 1121-1167.
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    10. Janet Currie & Lucas Davis & Michael Greenstone & Reed Walker, 2013. "Do Housing Prices Reflect Environmental Health Risks? Evidence from More than 1600 Toxic Plant Openings and Closings," NBER Working Papers 18700, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Cited by:

    1. Chuard, Caroline, 2020. "Womb at work: The missing impact of maternal employment on newborn health," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(C).
    2. Foureaux Koppensteiner, Martin & Manacorda, Marco, 2016. "Violence and birth outcomes: Evidence from homicides in Brazil," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 119(C), pages 16-33.
    3. Tatyana Deryugina & David Molitor, 2020. "Does When You Die Depend on Where You Live? Evidence from Hurricane Katrina," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 110(11), pages 3602-3633, November.
    4. Kreiner, Claus Thustrup & Sievertsen, Hans Henrik, 2020. "Neonatal health of parents and cognitive development of children," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(C).
    5. Argys, Laura M. & Averett, Susan L. & Yang, Muzhe, 2018. "Light Pollution, Sleep Deprivation, and Infant Health at Birth," IZA Discussion Papers 11703, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Chuard, Caroline, 2020. "Womb at work: The missing impact of maternal employment on newborn health," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(C).
    7. Shirlee Lichtman-Sadot & Neta Benshalom-Tirosh & Eyal Sheiner, 2020. "Conflict, Rockets, and Birth Outcomes: Evidence from Israel’s Operation Protective Edge," Working Papers 2009, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Economics.
    8. Palma, Alessandro & Petrunyk, Inna & Vuri, Daniela, 2019. "Air Pollution during Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes in Italy," IZA Discussion Papers 12467, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    9. Bobonis, Gustavo J. & Stabile, Mark & Tovar, Leonardo, 2020. "Military training exercises, pollution, and their consequences for health," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(C).
    10. Atella, Vincenzo & di Porto, Edoardo & Kopinska, Joanna & Lindeboom, Maarten, 2020. "Maternal Stress and Offspring Lifelong Labor Market Outcomes," IZA Discussion Papers 13744, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    11. Rodriguez Takeuchi,Laura Kiku, 2020. "Violence and Newborn Health : Estimates for Colombia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9377, The World Bank.
    12. Lichtman-Sadot, Shirlee & Benshalom-Tirosh, Neta & Sheiner, Eyal, 2020. "Conflict, Rockets, and Birth Outcomes: Evidence from Israel's Operation Protective Edge," IZA Discussion Papers 13394, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    13. Ryan Brown, 0. "The Intergenerational Impact of Terror: Did the 9/11 Tragedy Impact the Initial Human Capital of the Next Generation?," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 0, pages 1-23.
    14. Mogens Fosgerau & André de Palma & Julien Monardo, 2018. "Demand Models for Differentiated Goods with Complementarity and Substitutability," Discussion Papers 18-02, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
    15. Achyuta Adhvaryu & Prashant Bharadwaj & James Fenske & Anant Nyshadham & Richard Stanley, 2016. "Dust and Death: Evidence from the West African Harmattan," CSAE Working Paper Series 2016-03, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
    16. Gustavo J. Bobonis & Mark Stabile & Leonardo Tovar, 2016. "Bombs and Babies: US Navy Bombing Activity and Infant Health in Vieques, Puerto Rico," NBER Working Papers 22909, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Ji Yan, 2017. "Healthy Babies: Does Prenatal Care Really Matter?," Working Papers 17-09, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University.
    18. Aparicio Fenoll, Ainoa & Gonzalez, Libertad, 2020. "Political Instability and Birth Outcomes: Evidence from the 1981 Military Coup in Spain," IZA Discussion Papers 13674, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    19. Ryan Brown, 2020. "The Intergenerational Impact of Terror: Did the 9/11 Tragedy Impact the Initial Human Capital of the Next Generation?," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 57(4), pages 1459-1481, August.
    20. Climent Quintana-Domeque & Pedro Rodenas-Serrano, 2014. "Terrorism and Human Capital at Birth: Bomb Casualties and Birth Outcomes in Spain," Working Papers 2014-020, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group.
    21. Ogasawara, Kota, 2018. "The long-run effects of pandemic influenza on the development of children from elite backgrounds: Evidence from industrializing Japan," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 125-137.

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    JEL classification:

    • I1 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health

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