IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/2029.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Dividend and Share Changes: Is There a Financing Hierarchy?

Author

Listed:
  • Robert L. McDonald
  • Naomi Soderstrom

Abstract

The most widely accepted empirical dividend model is that proposed by Lintner, who argued that firms smooth dividends over time. Many theoretical dividend models, however, either predict that dividends should be highly variable, or at least offer no support for the smoothing hypothesis. We use a switching regression model to test the Lintner model against an alternative which allows dividend behavior to differ depending upon whether or not firms are issuing shares. We reject the Lintner model, finding no evidence of dividend smoothing when firms are not issuing shares, and a high negative dividend growth rate when firms are issuing shares. This description of dividend behavior suggests the existence of a financing hierarchy in that the marginal source of finance differs over time. To further explore the financing hierarchy, we estimate logit models which explain the decisions by firms to change dividends, and to issue or repurchase shares. The results are consistent with the existence of a financing hierarchy.

Suggested Citation

  • Robert L. McDonald & Naomi Soderstrom, 1986. "Dividend and Share Changes: Is There a Financing Hierarchy?," NBER Working Papers 2029, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:2029
    Note: ME
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.nber.org/papers/w2029.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
    2. Bradley, Michael & Jarrell, Gregg A & Kim, E Han, 1984. " On the Existence of an Optimal Capital Structure: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 857-878, July.
    3. Miller, Merton H. & Scholes, Myron S., 1978. "Dividends and taxes," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 333-364, December.
    4. Baxter, Nevins D & Cragg, John G, 1970. "Corporate Choice Among Long-Term Financing Instruments," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 52(3), pages 225-235, August.
    5. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
    6. Ang, James S., 1976. "The Intertemporal Behavior of Corporate Debt Policy," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(04), pages 555-566, November.
    7. Taggart, Robert A, Jr, 1977. "A Model of Corporate Financing Decisions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(5), pages 1467-1484, December.
    8. Peterson, Pamela P. & Peterson, David R. & Ang, James S., 1985. "Direct evidence on the marginal rate of taxation on dividend income," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 267-282, June.
    9. Feenberg, Daniel, 1981. "Does the investment interest limitation explain the existence of dividends?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 265-269, September.
    10. Auerbach, Alan J., 1984. "Taxes, firm financial policy and the cost of capital: An empirical analysis," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(1-2), pages 27-57.
    11. Ofer, Aharon R & Thakor, Anjan V, 1987. " A Theory of Stock Price Responses to Alternative Corporate Cash Disbursement Methods: Stock Repurchases and Dividends," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(2), pages 365-394, June.
    12. Lee, Lung-Fei & Trost, Robert P., 1978. "Estimation of some limited dependent variable models with application to housing demand," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 8(3), pages 357-382, December.
    13. Taub, Allan J, 1975. "Determinants of the Firm's Capital Structure," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 57(4), pages 410-416, November.
    14. Miller, Merton H, 1986. "Behavioral Rationality in Finance: The Case of Dividends," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(4), pages 451-468, October.
    15. Myers, Stewart C., 1977. "Determinants of corporate borrowing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 147-175, November.
    16. Miller, Merton H & Rock, Kevin, 1985. " Dividend Policy under Asymmetric Information," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(4), pages 1031-1051, September.
    17. Marcus, Alan J, 1983. " The Bank Capital Decision: A Time Series-Cross Section Analysis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(4), pages 1217-1232, September.
    18. Myers, Stewart C., 1984. "Capital structure puzzle," Working papers 1548-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    19. Myers, Stewart C, 1984. " The Capital Structure Puzzle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 575-592, July.
    20. Stewart C. Myers, 1984. "Capital Structure Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 1393, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    21. Alan J. Auerbach, 1979. "Wealth Maximization and the Cost of Capital," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 93(3), pages 433-446.
    22. Sudipto Bhattacharya, 1979. "Imperfect Information, Dividend Policy, and "The Bird in the Hand" Fallacy," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 10(1), pages 259-270, Spring.
    23. Stiglitz, Joseph E., 1973. "Taxation, corporate financial policy, and the cost of capital," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 1-34, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Chemmanur, Thomas J. & He, Jie & Hu, Gang & Liu, Helen, 2010. "Is dividend smoothing universal?: New insights from a comparative study of dividend policies in Hong Kong and the U.S," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 413-430, September.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:2029. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: () or (Joanne Lustig). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/nberrus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.