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The Economics of Work Schedules under the New Hours and Employment Taxes

  • Casey B. Mulligan

Hours, employment, and income taxes are economically distinct, and all three are either introduced or expanded by the Affordable Care Act beginning in 2014. The tax wedges push some workers to work more hours per week (for the weeks that they are on a payroll), and others to work less, with an average weekly hours effect that tends to be small and may be in either direction. A conservative estimate of the law's average employment rate impact is negative three percent. The ACA's tax wedges and ultimately its behavioral effects vary substantially across groups, with the elderly experiencing hardly any new disincentive and unmarried household heads experiencing tax wedges that are about twice the average. My estimates suggest that about four percent of the workforce will work less than the legislated 30-hour threshold solely to avoid the implicit and explicit full-time employment taxes.

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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 19936.

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Date of creation: Feb 2014
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Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:19936
Note: EFG LS PE
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  1. Casey B. Mulligan, 2013. "Average Marginal Labor Income Tax Rates under the Affordable Care Act," NBER Working Papers 19365, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Hirsch, Barry, 2004. "Why Do Part-Time Workers Earn Less? The Role of Worker and Job Skills," IZA Discussion Papers 1261, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Casey B. Mulligan & Trevor S. Gallen, 2013. "Wedges, Wages, and Productivity under the Affordable Care Act," NBER Working Papers 19771, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Richard V. Burkhauser & Sean Lyons & Kosali I. Simon, 2011. "The Importance of the Meaning and Measurement of "Affordable" in the Affordable Care Act," NBER Working Papers 17279, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Walter Y. Oi, 1962. "Labor as a Quasi-Fixed Factor," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70, pages 538.
  6. Casey B. Mulligan, 2012. "The ARRA: Some Unpleasant Welfare Arithmetic," NBER Working Papers 18591, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Mark Montgomery & James Cosgrove, 1993. "The Effect of Employee Benefits on the Demand for Part-Time Workers," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 47(1), pages 87-98, October.
  8. Calmfors, Lars & Hoel, Michael, 1988. " Work Sharing and Overtime," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 90(1), pages 45-62.
  9. Bradley Heim & Ithai Lurie, 2014. "Does health reform affect self-employment? Evidence from Massachusetts," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 43(4), pages 917-930, December.
  10. Casey B. Mulligan, 2013. "Is the Affordable Care Act Different from Romneycare? A Labor Economics Perspective," NBER Working Papers 19366, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Mark Montgomery & James Cosgrove, 1993. "The effect of employee benefits on the demand for part-time workers," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 47(1), pages 87-98, October.
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