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Using Implementation Intentions Prompts to Enhance Influenza Vaccination Rates

Author

Listed:
  • Katherine L. Milkman
  • John Beshears
  • James J. Choi
  • David Laibson
  • Brigitte C. Madrian

Abstract

We evaluate the results of a field experiment designed to measure the effect of prompts to form implementation intentions on realized behavioral outcomes. The outcome of interest is influenza vaccination receipt at free on-site clinics offered by a large firm to its employees. All employees eligible for study participation received reminder mailings that listed the times and locations of the relevant vaccination clinics. Mailings to employees randomly assigned to the treatment conditions additionally included a prompt to write down either (1) the date the employee planned to be vaccinated or (2) the date and time the employee planned to be vaccinated. Vaccination rates increased when these implementation intentions prompts were included in the mailing. The vaccination rate among control condition employees was 33.1%. Employees who received the prompt to write down just a date had a vaccination rate 1.5 percentage points higher than the control group, a difference that is not statistically significant. Employees who received the more specific prompt to write down both a date and a time had a 4.2 percentage point higher vaccination rate, a difference that is both statistically significant and of meaningful magnitude.

Suggested Citation

  • Katherine L. Milkman & John Beshears & James J. Choi & David Laibson & Brigitte C. Madrian, 2011. "Using Implementation Intentions Prompts to Enhance Influenza Vaccination Rates," NBER Working Papers 17183, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:17183
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    4. Brigitte C. Madrian & Dennis F. Shea, 2001. "The Power of Suggestion: Inertia in 401(k) Participation and Savings Behavior," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(4), pages 1149-1187.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Bronchetti, Erin Todd & Huffman, David B. & Magenheim, Ellen, 2015. "Attention, intentions, and follow-through in preventive health behavior: Field experimental evidence on flu vaccination," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 270-291.
    2. Raj Chande & Michael Luca & Michael Sanders & Zhi Soon & Oana Borcan & Netta Barak-Corren & Elizabeth Linos & Elspeth Kirkman, 2015. "Curbing adult student attrition. Evidence from a field experiment," The Centre for Market and Public Organisation 15/335, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
    3. Montinari, Natalia & Runnemark, Emma & Wengström, Erik, 2017. "Self-Scanning and Self-Control: A Field Experiment on Real-Time Feedback and Shopping Behavior," Working Papers 2017:15, Lund University, Department of Economics.
    4. repec:hrv:faseco:34737827 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Alos Ferrer, Carlos, 2013. "Think, but Not Too Much: A Dual-Process Model of Willpower and Self-Control," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 80019, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    6. Eva M. Berger & Günther König & Henning Mueller & Felix Schmidt & Daniel Schunk, 2016. "Self-Regulation Training, Labor Market Reintegration of Unemployed Individuals, and Locus of Control - Evidence from a Natural Field Experiment," CESifo Working Paper Series 6246, CESifo Group Munich.
    7. Itzik Fadlon & Torben Heien Nielsen, 2017. "Family Health Behaviors," NBER Working Papers 24042, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Saugato Datta & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2014. "Behavioral Design: A New Approach to Development Policy," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 60(1), pages 7-35, March.
    9. Altmann, Steffen & Traxler, Christian, 2014. "Nudges at the dentist," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 19-38.
    10. Brigitte C. Madrian, 2014. "Applying Insights from Behavioral Economics to Policy Design," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 6(1), pages 663-688, August.
    11. Raj Chande & Michael Luca & Michael Sanders & Xian-Zhi Soon & Oana Borcan & Netta Barak Corren & Elizabeth Linos & Elspeth Kirkman & Sean Robinson, 2015. "Curbing Adult Student Attrition: Evidence from a Field Experiment," Harvard Business School Working Papers 15-065, Harvard Business School.
    12. Sylvain Chareyron & David Gray & Yannick L'Horty, 2017. "Raising the take-up of social assistance benefits through a simple mailing: evidence from a French field experiment," TEPP Working Paper 2017-01, TEPP.
    13. Schmidt, Felix & Berger, Eva & Schunk, Daniel & Müller, Henning & König, Günther, 2017. "Self-Regulation Training and Job Search Effort: A Natural Field Experiment within an Active Labor Market Program," Annual Conference 2017 (Vienna): Alternative Structures for Money and Banking 168177, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    14. Milkman, Katherine L. & Beshears, John & Choi, James J. & Laibson, David & Madrian, Brigitte C., 2012. "Following through on Good Intentions: The Power of Planning Prompts," Working Paper Series rwp12-024, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
    15. repec:bri:cmpowp:13/335 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. repec:cje:issued:v:50:y:2017:i:3:p:599-635 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Kast, Felipe & Meier, Stephan & Pomeranz, Dina, 2012. "Under-Savers Anonymous: Evidence on Self-Help Groups and Peer Pressure as a Savings Commitment Device," IZA Discussion Papers 6311, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    18. repec:eee:jeborg:v:145:y:2018:i:c:p:151-175 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Robert French & Philip Oreopoulos, 2017. "Applying behavioural economics to public policy in Canada," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 50(3), pages 599-635, August.
    20. John Beshears & Katherine L. Milkman & Joshua Schwartzstein, 2016. "Beyond Beta-Delta: The Emerging Economics of Personal Plans," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 106(5), pages 430-434, May.
    21. Matthew Darling & Christopher O’Leary & Irma Perez-Johnson & Jaclyn Lefkowitz & Ken Kline & Ben Damerow & Randall Eberts & Samia Amin & Greg Chojnacki, "undated". "Using Behavioral Insights to Improve Take-Up of a Reemployment Program: Trial Design and Findings (Final Report)," Mathematica Policy Research Reports 19d4f458c9664af78edf0367f, Mathematica Policy Research.
    22. Bracha, Anat & Meier, Stephan, 2014. "Nudging credit scores in the field: the effect of text reminders on creditworthiness in the United States," Working Papers 15-2, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    23. Pascaline Dupas & Edward Miguel, 2016. "Impacts and Determinants of Health Levels in Low-Income Countries," NBER Working Papers 22235, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D03 - Microeconomics - - General - - - Behavioral Microeconomics: Underlying Principles
    • I10 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - General
    • J18 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Public Policy

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