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Cascades in Networks and Aggregate Volatility

Author

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  • Daron Acemoglu
  • Asuman Ozdaglar
  • Alireza Tahbaz-Salehi

Abstract

We provide a general framework for the study of cascade effects created by interconnections between sectors, firms or financial institutions. Focusing on a multi sector economy linked through a supply network, we show how structural properties of the supply network determine both whether aggregate volatility disappears as the number of sectors increases (i.e., whether the law of large numbers holds) and when it does, the rate at which this happens. Our main results characterize the relationship between first order interconnections (captured by the weighted degree sequence in the graph induced by the input-output relations) and aggregate volatility, and more importantly, the relationship between higher-order interconnections and aggregate volatility. These higher-order interconnections capture the cascade effects, whereby low productivity or the failure of a set of suppliers propagates through the rest of the economy as their downstream sectors/firms also suffer and transmit the negative shock to their downstream sectors/firms. We also link the probabilities of tail events (large negative deviations of aggregate output from its mean) to sector-specific volatility and to the structural properties of the supply network.

Suggested Citation

  • Daron Acemoglu & Asuman Ozdaglar & Alireza Tahbaz-Salehi, 2010. "Cascades in Networks and Aggregate Volatility," NBER Working Papers 16516, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:16516
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Vasco Carvalho, 2007. "Aggregate fluctuations and the network structure of intersectoral trade," Economics Working Papers 1206, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Oct 2010.
    2. Xavier Gabaix & Rustam Ibragimov, 2011. "Rank - 1 / 2: A Simple Way to Improve the OLS Estimation of Tail Exponents," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(1), pages 24-39, January.
    3. Franklin Allen & Ana Babus & Elena Carletti, 2010. "Financial Connections and Systemic Risk," NBER Chapters,in: Market Institutions and Financial Market Risk National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Xavier Gabaix, 2009. "Power Laws in Economics and Finance," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 1(1), pages 255-294, May.
    5. Xavier Gabaix, 2011. "The Granular Origins of Aggregate Fluctuations," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 79(3), pages 733-772, May.
    6. Markus K. Brunnermeier & Gary Gorton & Arvind Krishnamurthy, 2012. "Risk Topography," NBER Macroeconomics Annual, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(1), pages 149-176.
      • Markus K. Brunnermeier & Gary Gorton & Arvind Krishnamurthy, 2011. "Risk Topography," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2011, Volume 26, pages 149-176 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Timothy G. Conley & Bill Dupor, 2003. "A Spatial Analysis of Sectoral Complementarity," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(2), pages 311-352, April.
    8. Dupor, Bill, 1999. "Aggregation and irrelevance in multi-sector models," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 391-409, April.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Ezra Oberfield, 2011. "Business networks, production chains and productivity: A theory of input-output architecture," Working Paper Series WP-2011-12, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    2. David Levine, 2012. "Production Chains," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 15(3), pages 271-282, July.
    3. Diebold, Francis X. & Yılmaz, Kamil, 2014. "On the network topology of variance decompositions: Measuring the connectedness of financial firms," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 182(1), pages 119-134.
    4. Greenwood, Robin & Landier, Augustin & Thesmar, David, 2015. "Vulnerable banks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 115(3), pages 471-485.
    5. Paulo Bastos & Nicolas L. Bottan & Julian Cristia, 2017. "Access to Preprimary Education and Progression in Primary School: Evidence from Rural Guatemala," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, pages 521-547.
    6. Daron Acemoglu & Vasco M. Carvalho & Asuman Ozdaglar & Alireza Tahbaz‐Salehi, 2012. "The Network Origins of Aggregate Fluctuations," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 80(5), pages 1977-2016, September.
    7. Andersen, Torben G. & Bollerslev, Tim & Christoffersen, Peter F. & Diebold, Francis X., 2013. "Financial Risk Measurement for Financial Risk Management," Handbook of the Economics of Finance, Elsevier.
    8. Hans Gersbach & Jean‐Charles Rochet, 2012. "Aggregate Investment Externalities and Macroprudential Regulation," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 44, pages 73-109, December.
    9. Vasco Carvalho & Xavier Gabaix, 2013. "The Great Diversification and Its Undoing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(5), pages 1697-1727, August.
    10. Daron Acemoglu & Asuman Ozdaglar & Alireza Tahbaz-Salehi, 2013. "The Network Origins of Large Economic Downturns," NBER Working Papers 19230, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Gary Gereffi & Xubei Luo, 2015. "Risks and Opportunities of Participation in Global Value Chains," Journal of Banking and Financial Economics, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management, vol. 2(4), pages 51-63, June.
    12. repec:wsi:ijmpcx:v:25:y:2014:i:09:n:s0129183114500351 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Daron Acemoglu & Asuman Ozdaglar & Alireza Tahbaz-Salehi, 2015. "Systemic Risk and Stability in Financial Networks," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 105(2), pages 564-608, February.
    14. Lorenzo Burlon, 2012. "How Do Aggregate Fluctuations Depend on the Network Structure of the Economy?," Working Papers in Economics 278, Universitat de Barcelona. Espai de Recerca en Economia.
    15. Nadezhda Malysheva & Pierre-Daniel G. Sarte, 2011. "Sectoral disturbances and aggregate economic activity," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue 2Q, pages 153-173.
    16. Caballero, Julian, 2015. "Banking crises and financial integration: Insights from networks science," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 127-146.
    17. Gereffi, Gary & Luo, Xubei, 2014. "Risks and opportunities of participation in global value chains," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6847, The World Bank.
    18. Norman Schofield, 2015. "Climate Change, Collapse and Social Choice Theory," Czech Economic Review, Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute of Economic Studies, vol. 9(1), pages 007-035, October.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • C67 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Input-Output Models
    • D57 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Input-Output Tables and Analysis
    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles

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