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Monetary and Fiscal Policy with Flexible Exchange Rates

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  • William H. Branson
  • Willem H. Buiter

Abstract

If price decisions are taken neither continuously nor in perfect synchronization, the process of adjustment of all prices to a new nominal level will imply temporary movements in relative prices. It might then well be that, to avoid these movements in relative prices, each price setter will want to move his own price slowly compared to others. The result will be a slow movement of all prices to their new nominal level, and substantial inertia of the price level. This paper formalizes this intuitive argument and reaches four main conclusions: (1) Even small departures from perfect synchronization can generate substantial price level inertia. (2) If price decisions are desynchronized, even anticipated movements in money will usually have an effect on economic activity. It is however possible to find paths of money deceleration which reduce inflation at no cost in output. (3) Price desynchronization has implications for relative price movements as well as for the price level. Goods early in the chain of production have more price and profit variability than goods further down the chain. (4) Price inertia, if it is due to price desynchronization, may be difficult to remove. It may well be that, given the timing decisions of others, no agent has an incentive to change his own timing decision: the time structure of price desynchronization may be stable.

Suggested Citation

  • William H. Branson & Willem H. Buiter, 1982. "Monetary and Fiscal Policy with Flexible Exchange Rates," NBER Working Papers 0901, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:0901
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. William H. Branson & Julio J. Rotemberg, 1991. "International Adjustment with Wage Rigidity," NBER Chapters,in: International Volatility and Economic Growth: The First Ten Years of The International Seminar on Macroeconomics, pages 13-44 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Dornbusch, Rudiger & Fischer, Stanley, 1980. "Exchange Rates and the Current Account," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 960-971, December.
    3. Rudiger Dornbusch, 1980. "Exchange Rate Economics: Where Do We Stand?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 11(1, Tenth ), pages 143-206.
    4. Buiter, Willem H, 1978. "Short-run and Long-run Effects of External Disturbances under a Floating Exchange Rate," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 45(179), pages 251-272, August.
    5. Obstfeld, Maurice, 1980. "Imperfect asset substitutability and monetary policy under fixed exchange rates," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 177-200, May.
    6. Bruno, Michael, 1978. "Exchange Rates, Import Costs, and Wage-Price Dynamics," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(3), pages 379-403, June.
    7. Dornbusch, Rudiger, 1976. "Expectations and Exchange Rate Dynamics," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(6), pages 1161-1176, December.
    8. Marina V. N. Whitman, 1975. "Global Monetarism and the Monetary Approach to the Balance of Payments," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 6(3), pages 491-556.
    9. Louka T. Katseli & Nancy Peregrim Marion, 1980. "Adjustment to Variations in Imported Input Prices: The Role of Economic Structure," NBER Working Papers 0501, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. William H. Branson, 1976. "The Dual Roles of the Government Budget and the Balance of Payments in the Movement from Short-Run to Long-Run Equilibrium," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 90(3), pages 345-367.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Jorge Ramos & Hernán Rincón, 2000. "El Balance Fiscal Y El Balance En La Cuenta Corriente En Colombia: Canales De Transmisión Y Causalidad," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 002457, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
    2. Pekka Ahtiala, 1998. "Fiscal Policy under Flexible Exchange Rates: When is Expansion Contractionary?," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 17-34.
    3. Joaquín Pi Anguita, 1990. "Política macroeconómica en uniones monetarias," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 14(2), pages 213-224, May.
    4. Oscar Bajo Rubio, 1998. "Monetary and Fiscal Policies in Dynamic Models of the Open Economy," Documentos de Trabajo - Lan Gaiak Departamento de Economía - Universidad Pública de Navarra 9806, Departamento de Economía - Universidad Pública de Navarra.
    5. Jay Levin, 1989. "On the dynamic effects of monetary and fiscal policy under floating exchange rates: Simulations with an asset market model," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 125(4), pages 665-680, December.
    6. Carl Chiarella, 1991. "Monetary and Fiscal Policy Under Nonlinear Exchange Rate Dynamics," Working Paper Series 6, Finance Discipline Group, UTS Business School, University of Technology, Sydney.
    7. Eichengreen, Barry & Wyplosz, Charles, 1986. "The Economic Consequences of the Franc Poincare," CEPR Discussion Papers 136, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    8. Mills, Terence C. & Pentecost, Eric J., 2003. "Is there a relationship between real exchange rate movements and the output cycle?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 593-603, May.
    9. Ahtiala, Pekka, 2009. "When is money neutral under flexible exchange rates?," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 318-326, March.
    10. Dai, Meixing & Sidiropoulos, Moïse, 1999. "Politiques économiques et dynamiques du taux de change et du prix des actions avec effets de “pass-through”
      [Economic policies, exchange rate dynamics and asset prices under the effects of "pa
      ," MPRA Paper 14402, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Apr 2001.
    11. Jeffrey Sachs & Charles Wyplosz, 1984. "Real Exchange Rate Effects of Fiscal Policy," NBER Working Papers 1255, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.

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