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Basel II and Operational Risk: Implications for risk measurement and management in the financial sector


  • Ariane Chapelle

    () (Université Libre de Bruxelles, Solvay Business School)

  • Yves Crama

    () (Université de Liège, Management School)

  • Georges Hubner

    () (Université de Liège, Management School
    Maastricht University)

  • Jean-Philippe Peeters

    () (Risk Management Unit, Deloitte Luxembourg)


This paper proposes a methodology to analyze the implications of the Advanced Measurement Approach (AMA) for the assessment of operational risk put forward by the Basel II Accord. The methodology relies on an integrated procedure for the construction of the distribution of aggregate losses, using internal and external loss data. It is illustrated on a 2x2 matrix of two selected business lines and two event types, drawn from a database of 3000 losses obtained from a large European banking institution. For each cell, the method calibrates three truncated distributions functions for the body of internal data, the tail of internal data, and external data. When the dependence structure between aggregate losses and the non-linear adjustment of external data are explicitly taken into account, the regulatory capital computed with the AMA method proves to be substantially lower than with less sophisticated approaches allowed by the Basel II Accord, although the effect is not uniform for all business lines and event types. In a second phase, our models are used to estimate the effects of operational risk management actions on bank profitability, through a measure of RAROC adapted to operational risk. The results suggest that substantial savings can be achieved through active management techniques, although the estimated effect of a reduction of the number, frequency or severity of operational losses crucially depends on the calibration of the aggregate loss distributions.

Suggested Citation

  • Ariane Chapelle & Yves Crama & Georges Hubner & Jean-Philippe Peeters, 2004. "Basel II and Operational Risk: Implications for risk measurement and management in the financial sector," Working Paper Research 51, National Bank of Belgium.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbb:reswpp:200405-7

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. anonymous, 2001. "Guidance on risk management of leveraged financing," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue jun, pages 413-414.
    2. Klugman, Stuart A. & Parsa, Rahul, 1999. "Fitting bivariate loss distributions with copulas," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1-2), pages 139-148, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Financial Systems and Bank Examination Department, 2007. "The Effect of the Choice of the Loss Severity Distribution and the Parameter Estimation Method on Operational Risk Measurement - Analysis Using Sample Data -," Bank of Japan Research Papers 2007-12-26, Bank of Japan.
    2. Helder Ferreira de Mendonça & Délio José Cordeiro Galvão & Renato Falci Villela Loures, 2010. "Estimation of Economic Capital Concerning Operational Risk in a Brazilian Banking Industry Case," Working Papers Series 213, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
    3. George VAN GASTEL & François COPPENS & Hilde MEERSMAN & Nathalie SELLEKAERTS & Eddy VAN DE VOORDE & Thierry VANELSLANDER & Ann VERHETSEL, "undated". "Economic Impact of Port Activity: A Disaggregate Analysis. The Case of Antwerp," Regional and Urban Modeling 284100044, EcoMod.
    4. Geert Langenus, 2006. "Fiscal sustainability indicators and policy design in the face of ageing," Working Paper Research 102, National Bank of Belgium.

    More about this item


    operational risk management; basel II; advanced measurement approach; copulae; external data; EVT; RAROC; cost-benefit analysis.;

    JEL classification:

    • C24 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Truncated and Censored Models; Switching Regression Models; Threshold Regression Models
    • G18 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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