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Improving Sanitation at Scale: Lessons from TSSM Implementation in East Java, Indonesia


  • Samia Amin
  • Anu Rangarajan
  • Evan Borkum


Low-quality or nonexistent sanitation affects health and hinders economic development, especially in the world's poorest countries. To address this issue, the Water and Sanitation Program, a partnership administered by the World Bank and funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, launched a global initiative in 2006 at selected sites in India, Indonesia, and Tanzania. In Indonesia, the program was known as the Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing initiative, which moved beyond simply building sanitation "hardware" and relied, instead, on providing training and technical assistance to promote collective action to eliminate open defecation and to strengthen demand for and supply of sanitation products and services.

Suggested Citation

  • Samia Amin & Anu Rangarajan & Evan Borkum, 2011. "Improving Sanitation at Scale: Lessons from TSSM Implementation in East Java, Indonesia," Mathematica Policy Research Reports a1cbdc1d9d9c4144a1a20332a, Mathematica Policy Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:mpr:mprres:a1cbdc1d9d9c4144a1a20332afd387f3

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    Cited by:

    1. Cameron, Lisa A. & Shah, Manisha, 2017. "Scaling Up Sanitation: Evidence from an RCT in Indonesia," IZA Discussion Papers 10619, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

    More about this item


    Sanitation East Java Indonesia International;

    JEL classification:

    • F - International Economics
    • Z - Other Special Topics


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