Une analyse théorique de l’interaction entre l’emploi public et les performances du marché du travail dans les pays en développement
Cet article analyse les interactions entre l’emploi public et les performances du marché du travail dans les pays en développement. Si dans les pays développés il est montré que l’emploi public évince l’emploi privé et accroît le chômage, notre contribution théorique suggère que l’emploi public a une influence importante sur les performances du marché du travail des pays étudiés à travers trois canaux. D’abord, à travers des externalités positives, l’emploi public accroît la productivité du secteur privé. Ensuite, compte tenu du degré de substitution entre les productions des secteurs public et privé d’une part, et du niveau des rentes d’autre part, l’emploi public n’évince pas l’emploi privé. Enfin, aucun élément théorique ne justifie l’idée selon laquelle l’emploi public accroît le chômage, nos résultats suggèrent même que l’emploi public diminue durablement le chômage. This paper explores the consequences of public employment on labour market performances in developing countries. If in developed countries evidence shows that public employment may not only crowd out private employment, but also increase overall unemployment, our theoretical considerations suggest that public employment significantly affects labour market performances through three channels. First, positive externalities of public employment increase private sector productivity. Secondly, with the level of substitutability of public and private outputs, and the size of the rents, there is no crowding out effects of public jobs on the private sector. In the latter case, our theoretical analysis suggests that public employment may reduce unemployment in developing countries. (Full text in french)
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