IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Performance Analysis of a Collateralized Fund Obligation (CFO) Equity Tranche


  • Shady Aboul-Enein
  • Georges Dionne
  • Nicolas Papageorgiou


This article examines the performance of the junior tranche of a Collateralized Fund Obligation (CFO), i.e. the residual claim (equity) on a securitized portfolio of hedge funds. We use a polynomial goal programming model to create optimal portfolios of hedge funds, conditional to investor preferences and diversification constraints (maximum allocation per strategy). For each portfolio we build CFO structures that have different levels of leverage, and analyze both the stand alone performance as well as potential diversification benefits (low systematic risk exposures) of investing in the Equity Tranche of these structures. We find that the unconstrained mean-variance portfolio yields a high performance, but greater exposure to systematic risk. We observe the exact opposite picture in the case of unconstrained optimization where a skewness bias is added, thus proving the existence of a trade-off between stand alone performance and low exposure to systematic risk factors. We provide evidence that leveraged exposure to these hedge fund portfolios through the structuring of CFOs creates value for the Equity Tranche investor.

Suggested Citation

  • Shady Aboul-Enein & Georges Dionne & Nicolas Papageorgiou, 2009. "Performance Analysis of a Collateralized Fund Obligation (CFO) Equity Tranche," Cahiers de recherche 0931, CIRPEE.
  • Handle: RePEc:lvl:lacicr:0931

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Galai, Dan & Masulis, Ronald W., 1976. "The option pricing model and the risk factor of stock," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(1-2), pages 53-81.
    2. Spatt, Chester S & Sterbenz, Frederic P, 1993. " Incentive Conflicts, Bundling Claims, and the Interaction among Financial Claimants," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(2), pages 513-528, June.
    3. Constantinides, George M. & Rosenthal, Robert W., 1984. "Strategic analysis of the competitive exercise of certain financial options," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 128-138, February.
    4. Craig M. Lewis & Richard J. Rogalski & James K. Seward, 1999. "Is Convertible Debt a Substitute for Straight Debt or for Common Equity?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 28(3), Fall.
    5. Mayers, David, 1998. "Why firms issue convertible bonds: the matching of financial and real investment options," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 83-102, January.
    6. Asquith, Paul & Mullins, David W, Jr, 1991. " Convertible Debt: Corporate Call Policy and Voluntary Conversion," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(4), pages 1273-1289, September.
    7. Stein, Jeremy C., 1992. "Convertible bonds as backdoor equity financing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 3-21, August.
    8. Constantinides, George M., 1984. "Warrant exercise and bond conversion in competitive markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 371-397, September.
    9. Wolfgang Bühler & Christian Koziol, 2002. "Valuation Of Convertible Bonds With Sequential Conversion," Schmalenbach Business Review (sbr), LMU Munich School of Management, vol. 54(4), pages 302-334, October.
    10. Chang, Shao-Chi & Chen, Sheng-Syan & Liu, Yichen, 2004. "Why firms use convertibles: A further test of the sequential-financing hypothesis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 1163-1183, May.
    11. Timo P. Korkeamaki & William T. Moore, 2004. "Convertible Bond Design and Capital Investment: The Role of Call Provisions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 59(1), pages 391-405, February.
    12. Øivind Anti Nilsen & Fabio Schiantarelli, 2003. "Zeros and Lumps in Investment: Empirical Evidence on Irreversibilities and Nonconvexities," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 1021-1037, November.
    13. Green, Richard C., 1984. "Investment incentives, debt, and warrants," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 115-136, March.
    14. Emanuel, David C., 1983. "Warrant valuation and exercise strategy," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 211-235, August.
    15. Ingersoll, Jonathan E, Jr, 1977. "An Examination of Corporate Call Policies on Convertible Securities," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 463-478, May.
    16. Mark E. Doms & Timothy Dunne, 1998. "Capital Adjustment Patterns in Manufacturing Plants," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 1(2), pages 409-429, April.
    17. Lewis, Craig M. & Rogalski, Richard J. & Seward, James K., 1998. "Agency Problems, Information Asymmetries, and Convertible Debt Security Design," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 32-59, January.
    18. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-654, May-June.
    19. Grenadier, Steven R, 1996. " The Strategic Exercise of Options: Development Cascades and Overbuilding in Real Estate Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(5), pages 1653-1679, December.
    20. Nalin Kulatilaka & Enrico C. Perotti, 1998. "Strategic Growth Options," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(8), pages 1021-1031, August.
    21. Gavish, Bezalel & Kalay, Avner, 1983. "On the Asset Substitution Problem," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 18(01), pages 21-30, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Briec, Walter & Kerstens, Kristiaan & Van de Woestyne, Ignace, 2011. "Portfolio Selection with Skewness: A Comparison and a Generalized Two Fund Separation Result," Working Papers 2011/09, Hogeschool-Universiteit Brussel, Faculteit Economie en Management.

    More about this item


    Collateralized Fund Obligation (CFO); hedge funds; structured finance; portfolio optimization; performance analysis; multivariate linear regression; systematic risk;

    JEL classification:

    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G23 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:lvl:lacicr:0931. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Manuel Paradis). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.