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Vertically Related Markets of Collective Licensing of Differentiated Copyrights with Indirect Network Effects


  • Tim Paul Thomes

    () (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich Schiller University Jena)


This paper presents a theory of vertically interrelated markets of identical fixed size under implementation of positive indirect network effects. By introducing two Salop circles, a two-sided market model is provided, where intermediaries of differentiated copyrights for intellectual property, like performing rights organizations or publishers, compete as oligopsonists for owners of the intellectual property and as oligopolists for the users of their blanket licenses. We demonstrate, that an increase in competition benefits either license users or copyright owners or harms both groups. Moreover, if license users gain from an increased market entry, the owners of the intellectual property have to incur losses and vice versa.

Suggested Citation

  • Tim Paul Thomes, 2010. "Vertically Related Markets of Collective Licensing of Differentiated Copyrights with Indirect Network Effects," Jena Economic Research Papers 2010-056, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
  • Handle: RePEc:jrp:jrpwrp:2010-056

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Rob, Rafael & Waldfogel, Joel, 2006. "Piracy on the High C's: Music Downloading, Sales Displacement, and Social Welfare in a Sample of College Students," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 49(1), pages 29-62, April.
    2. Gu, Yiquan & Wenzel, Tobias, 2009. "A note on the excess entry theorem in spatial models with elastic demand," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 567-571, September.
    3. Martin Peitz & Patrick Waelbroeck, 2005. "An Economist's Guide to Digital Music," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 51(2-3), pages 359-428.
    4. Arghya Ghosh & Hodaka Morita, 2007. "Free entry and social efficiency under vertical oligopoly," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 38(2), pages 541-554, June.
    5. Dewenter, Ralf & Haucap, Justus & Wenzel, Tobias, 2009. "Indirect network effects with two salop circles: the example of the music industry," FAU Discussion Papers in Economics 09/2009, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute for Economics.
    6. Peitz, Martin & Waelbroeck, Patrick, 2006. "Why the music industry may gain from free downloading -- The role of sampling," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 907-913, September.
    7. Pollock, R., 2009. "General Network Effects and Welfare," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0915, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
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    More about this item


    Vertical restraints; Indirect network effects; Copyright enforcement; Performing rights organizations; Music industry;

    JEL classification:

    • D43 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
    • L44 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - Antitrust Policy and Public Enterprise, Nonprofit Institutions, and Professional Organizations
    • L82 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Entertainment; Media

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