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Dynamic Credit Relationships in General Equilibrium

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  • Smith, A. A.
  • Wang, Cheng

Abstract

We construct a general equilibrium model with private information in which borrowers and lenders enter into long-term dynamic credit relationships. Each new generation of ex ante identical individuals is divided in equilibrium into workers and entrepreneurs. Workers save through financial intermediaries in the form of interest-bearing deposits and supply labor to entrepreneurs in a competitive labor market. Entrepreneurs borrow from financial intermediaries to finance projects which produce privately observed sequences of random returns. Each financial intermediary holds deposits from a large number of workers and operates a portfolio of dynamic contracts with different credit positions. We calibrate the model to the U.S. economy and find that dynamic contracting is very effective at mitigating the effects of private information. Moreover, restricting borrowers and lenders to use static (one-period) contracts with a costly monitoring technology has adverse effects both on the level of aggregate econonmic activity and on individual welfare unless monitoring costs are very small. Finally, the optimal provision of intertemporal incentives leads to increasing consumption inequality over time within generational cohorts as in U.S. data.

Suggested Citation

  • Smith, A. A. & Wang, Cheng, 2006. "Dynamic Credit Relationships in General Equilibrium," Staff General Research Papers Archive 12263, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:isu:genres:12263
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Jeremy Greenwood & Juan M. Sanchez & Cheng Wang, 2010. "Financing Development: The Role of Information Costs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(4), pages 1875-1891, September.
    2. Thomas Cooley & Ramon Marimon & Vincenzo Quadrini, 2004. "Aggregate Consequences of Limited Contract Enforceability," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(4), pages 817-847, August.
    3. Shuyun May Li, 2008. "Employment Flows with Endogenous Financing Constraints," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 1045, The University of Melbourne.
    4. Cheng Wang, 1995. "Dynamic Insurance with Private Information and Balanced Budgets," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 62(4), pages 577-595.
    5. Jin, Yu, 2010. "Credit Termination and the Technology Bubbles," MPRA Paper 29010, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Pavan, Marina, 2008. "Consumer durables and risky borrowing: The effects of bankruptcy protection," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(8), pages 1441-1456, November.
    7. Wang, Cheng, 2011. "Termination of dynamic contracts in an equilibrium labor market model," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 146(1), pages 74-110, January.
    8. Andres Erosa, 2001. "Financial Intermediation and Occupational Choice in Development," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 4(2), pages 303-334, April.
    9. Storesletten, Kjetil & Telmer, Christopher I. & Yaron, Amir, 2004. "Consumption and risk sharing over the life cycle," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 609-633, April.
    10. Spear, Stephen E. & Wang, Cheng, 2005. "When to fire a CEO: optimal termination in dynamic contracts," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 120(2), pages 239-256, February.
    11. Martin Andreasen & Marcelo Ferman & Pawel Zabczyk, 2013. "The Business Cycle Implications of Banks' Maturity Transformation," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 16(4), pages 581-600, October.
    12. Wang, Cheng, 2001. "Financial intermediation regime and efficiency in a Boyd-Prescott economy A comment," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 131-137, June.
    13. Tobias Broer & Marek Kapicka & Paul Klein, 2017. "Consumption Risk Sharing with Private Information and Limited Enforcement," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 23, pages 170-190, January.
    14. Kevin Moran & Cesaire Meh, 2004. "Bank Capital, Agency Costs, and Monetary Policy," 2004 Meeting Papers 318, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    15. Li, Shuyun May, 2013. "Optimal lending contracts with long run borrowing constraints," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 964-983.
    16. Cesar Tamayo, 2015. "Investor protection and optimal contracts under risk aversion and costly state verification," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 59(3), pages 547-577, August.
    17. Townsend, Robert M., 1979. "Optimal contracts and competitive markets with costly state verification," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 265-293, October.
    18. Hachem, Kinda, 2011. "Relationship lending and the transmission of monetary policy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(6), pages 590-600.
    19. Sebastian Dyrda, 2015. "Fluctuations in uncertainty, efficient borrowing constraints and firm dynamics," 2015 Meeting Papers 1243, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    20. Li Shuyun May, 2010. "Employment Flows with Endogenous Financing Constraints," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 10(1), pages 1-42, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Wang, Cheng, 2011. "Termination of dynamic contracts in an equilibrium labor market model," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 146(1), pages 74-110, January.
    2. Stephane Verani, 2018. "Aggregate Consequences of Dynamic Credit Relationships," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 29, pages 44-67, July.
    3. Jeremy Greenwood & Juan M. Sanchez & Cheng Wang, 2010. "Financing Development: The Role of Information Costs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(4), pages 1875-1891, September.
    4. Li, Shuyun May, 2013. "Optimal lending contracts with long run borrowing constraints," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 964-983.
    5. Cheng Wang, 1995. "Dynamic Insurance with Private Information and Balanced Budgets," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 62(4), pages 577-595.
    6. Cheng Wang, 2005. "Dynamic costly state verification," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 25(4), pages 887-916, June.
    7. Shuyun May Li, 2009. "Optimal Lending Contracts with Asymmetric Information and Two-sided Limited Commitment or Impatient Entrepreneur," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 1065, The University of Melbourne.
    8. Martin Andreasen & Marcelo Ferman & Pawel Zabczyk, 2013. "The Business Cycle Implications of Banks' Maturity Transformation," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 16(4), pages 581-600, October.
    9. Shuyun May Li, 2009. "Optimal Lending Contracts with Long Run Borrowing Constraints," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 1084, The University of Melbourne.
    10. Hachem, Kinda, 2011. "Relationship lending and the transmission of monetary policy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(6), pages 590-600.
    11. Li Shuyun May, 2010. "Employment Flows with Endogenous Financing Constraints," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 10(1), pages 1-42, July.
    12. Storesletten, Kjetil & Telmer, Christopher I. & Yaron, Amir, 2004. "Consumption and risk sharing over the life cycle," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 609-633, April.
    13. Stephane Verani, 2018. "Aggregate Consequences of Dynamic Credit Relationships," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 29, pages 44-67, July.
    14. Till Gross & Stéphane Verani, 2012. "Financing Constraints, Firm Dynamics, and International Trade," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2012-68, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    15. Latchezar Popov & B Ravikumar & Aubhik Khan, 2012. "Enduring Relationships in an Economy with Capital and Private Information," 2012 Meeting Papers 1056, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    16. Cesar Tamayo, 2015. "Investor protection and optimal contracts under risk aversion and costly state verification," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 59(3), pages 547-577, August.
    17. Jin, Yu, 2010. "Credit Termination and the Technology Bubbles," MPRA Paper 29010, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Sebastian Dyrda, 2015. "Fluctuations in uncertainty, efficient borrowing constraints and firm dynamics," 2015 Meeting Papers 1243, Society for Economic Dynamics.

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