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Benchmarking urban sustainability: A Composite index for Mumbai and Bangalore


  • B. Sudhakara Reddy

    (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research)

  • P. Balachandra

    (Indian Institute of Science)


The study investigates if the present pattern of urban development in India in the creation of mega cities sustainable. This has been done by comparing the Indian cities Mumbai and Bangalore with sustainable mega cities of developed countries (Shanghai, London, and Singapore) using indicators. The objectives of the study are: (i) developing sustainable urban indicator variables spanning all the relevant sectors of a typical mega city, (ii) developing a benchmark sustainable indicator-base for a selected mega city, (iii) developing the database for Mumbai and Bangalore by adopting the same methodology and same indicators, (iv) comparing and evaluating the indicator data with the benchmark indicator database using "gap analysis" approach, and (v) suggesting appropriate policy measures and implementation strategies to bridge identified gaps to attain the goal of sustainable urban system. Economic, Environmental, social and institutional indicators are proposed to be examined in the context of resource utilization. The indicators represent a primary tool to provide guidance for policy makers and to potentially assist in decision-making and monitoring local strategies/plans. The outcome of the study will contribute to the design of policies, tools, and approaches essential for planning to attain the goal of sustainable development and the social cohesion of metropolitan regions.

Suggested Citation

  • B. Sudhakara Reddy & P. Balachandra, 2013. "Benchmarking urban sustainability: A Composite index for Mumbai and Bangalore," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2013-008, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
  • Handle: RePEc:ind:igiwpp:2013-008

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. World Bank, 2009. "World Development Indicators 2009," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 4367, July.
    2. Helen Briassoulis, 2001. "Sustainable Development and its Indicators: Through a (Planner's) Glass Darkly," Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(3), pages 409-427.
    3. Hippu Salk Kristle Nathan & B. Sudhakara Reddy, 2011. "Urban transport sustainability indicators: Application of Multi-View Black-Box (MVBB) framework," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2011-022, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ambreen Ghalib & Abdul Qadir & Sajid Rashid Ahmad, 2017. "Evaluation of Developmental Progress in Some Cities of Punjab, Pakistan, Using Urban Sustainability Indicators," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(8), pages 1-17, August.
    2. Liyin Shen & Chenyang Shuai & Liudan Jiao & Yongtao Tan & Xiangnan Song, 2016. "A Global Perspective on the Sustainable Performance of Urbanization," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(8), pages 1-16, August.
    3. Yuanqing Wang & Liu Yang & Sunsheng Han & Chao Li & T. V. Ramachandra, 2017. "Urban CO2 emissions in Xi’an and Bangalore by commuters: implications for controlling urban transportation carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 22(7), pages 993-1019, October.
    4. Ahmad M. Khalid & Seema Sharma & Amlendu K. Dubey, 2018. "Developing an indicator set for measuring sustainable development in India," Natural Resources Forum, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 42(3), pages 185-200, August.

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    More about this item


    Benchmarking; Gap analysis; Indicator; Sustainability; Urban;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • Q4 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy
    • L94 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Electric Utilities
    • L95 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Gas Utilities; Pipelines; Water Utilities
    • L98 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Government Policy

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