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Environmental standards as strategic outcomes: A Simple model

  • Rabindra N. Bhattacharya

    (CSSSS)

  • Rupayan Pal

    ()

    (Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research)

This paper examines the strategic nature of choice of environmental standards under different degrees of openness of countries. It also compares and contrasts equilibrium environmental standards and levels of pollution, local and global, with the world optimum levels. It shows that, in case of open economies, environmental standards can be strategic substitutes or complements. In equilibrium, countries set higher environmental standards in case of open economies compared to that in case of closed economies. It also shows that equilibrium standards in case of open economies are higher than the world optimum in certain situations. In contrast, countries set lower environmental standards, in equilibrium, than the world optimum in absence of international trade.

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Paper provided by Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India in its series Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers with number 2008-028.

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Length: 18 pages
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Handle: RePEc:ind:igiwpp:2008-028
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  1. Copeland, Brian R & Taylor, M Scott, 1995. "Trade and Transboundary Pollution," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(4), pages 716-37, September.
  2. Chichilnisky, Graciela, 1994. "North-South Trade and the Global Environment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(4), pages 851-74, September.
  3. Ulph, Alistair, 1996. "Environmental Policy and International Trade when Governments and Producers Act Strategically," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 265-281, May.
  4. Markusen James R. & Morey Edward R. & Olewiler Nancy D., 1993. "Environmental Policy when Market Structure and Plant Locations Are Endogenous," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 69-86, January.
  5. J. Peter Neary, 2000. "International Trade and the Environment - Theoretical and Policy Linkages," Working Papers 200018, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
  6. Conrad Klaus, 1993. "Taxes and Subsidies for Pollution-Intensive Industries as Trade Policy," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 121-135, September.
  7. Shuichi Ohori, 2006. "Optimal Environmental Tax and Level of Privatization in an International Duopoly," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 29(2), pages 225-233, 03.
  8. Copeland, Brian R & Taylor, M Scott, 1994. "North-South Trade and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(3), pages 755-87, August.
  9. Kennedy Peter W., 1994. "Equilibrium Pollution Taxes in Open Economies with Imperfect Competition," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 49-63, July.
  10. Yann Duval & Stephen Hamilton, 2002. "Strategic Environmental Policy and International Trade in Asymmetric Oligopoly Markets," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 259-271, May.
  11. Silva, Emilson C.D. & Zhu, Xie, 2009. "Emissions trading of global and local pollutants, pollution havens and free riding," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 169-182, September.
  12. Burguet, Roberto & Sempere, Jaume, 2003. "Trade liberalization, environmental policy, and welfare," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 25-37, July.
  13. Odd Rune Straume, 2006. "Product Market Integration and Environmental Policy Coordination in An International Duopoly," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 34(4), pages 535-563, August.
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