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Las reformas estructurales en América Latina bajo la lupa

  • Eduardo Lora

    ()

  • Ugo Panizza

(Obtenga el PDF en español, visitando el WP-471) El futuro de las reformas estructurales en América Latina está en discusión. El objeto de este documento es resumir los hechos y las opiniones subyacentes de este debate. La primera parte muestra que si bien el proceso de reforma no se ha detenido del todo, sí ha sido incompleto y desigual, tanto entre países como entre las diversas áreas de reforma. Los mayores avances se han registrado en la reforma de los sectores del comercio internacional y las finanzas. En términos de reforma tributaria y privatización, los resultados de un país a otro son encontrados. Los avances más pequeños se han registrado en el área de la reforma del código laboral. En la segunda parte se analiza la situación de la opinión pública sobre el proceso de reforma. La desilusión con las reformas ha venido en aumento, especialmente entre la clase media. Más que reflejar inquietudes sobre el estado de la economía o el grado de avance de las reformas, esta crítica tiene que ver con la corrupción que ha empañado el proceso de privatización en algunos países. En la tercera sección se pasa revista a los efectos de las reformas. Sus repercusiones en el crecimiento parecen haber sido positivas, aunque pasajeras, pero sus efectos en el empleo y la distribución del ingreso han variado en diversas áreas de la reforma y según el contexto específico de cada país. En particular, la eficacia de las reformas ha dependido en gran medida de la calidad de las instituciones públicas. En la cuarta parte se presenta una síntesis de las principales propuestas para ampliar o reorientar el programa de reformas en la región. Un conjunto de propuestas sugiere ampliar el Consenso de Washington con políticas más activas, destinadas a acometer la necesidad de mayor estabilidad económica, integración social y una distribución equitativa del ingreso. Otro conjunto de propuestas, guiado por un punto de vista más amplio de los objetivos del desarrollo, hace hincapié en la interacción entre la sociedad civil, el sector privado y el gobierno. Por último, una visión más radical propone una nueva estructura nacional e internacional de las instituciones, a fin de limitar el papel de los mercados y atenuar los efectos de la globalización.

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Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department in its series Research Department Publications with number 4302.

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Date of creation: Mar 2002
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Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:4302
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