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La competitividad de Perú después de la década de reforma: Diagnóstico y propuestas

  • Alberto Melo
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    Este trabajo evalúa la competitividad actual de Perú, que logró avances importantes durante la década de los 90 como resultado de reformas estructuras y el mejoramiento del manejo macroeconómico, y propone estrategias para seguir aumentando la competitividad del país. Los determinantes de la competitividad considerados incluyen los siguientes: i) los recursos productivos, ii) la calidad y productividad de los mismos, iii) la eficiencia con que operan sus mercados, iv) el estado de su infraestructura, v) la capacidad de innovación tecnológica de sus empresas y la productividad de su sistema nacional de innovación, vi) la percepción existente entre los inversionistas acerca de su estabilidad macroeconómica a largo plazo, vii) la fortaleza de sus instituciones y viii) la percepción de los inversionistas acerca de su estabilidad política a largo plazo. Para que Perú eleve su nivel de competitividad a lo largo del próximo quinquenio, el trabajo propone seis tareas estratégicas en las cuales debe concentrarse el esfuerzo de políticas públicas, que son las siguientes: i) eliminar la inestabilidad de las reglas de juego de la actividad económica del sector privado; ii) elevar la calidad de la educación e incrementar la capacitación laboral; iii) mejorar la infraestructura de transporte; iv) eliminar la corrupción en la administración pública; v) continuar la reforma de la administración de justicia, con el objetivo central de constituir al Poder Judicial en un bastión de seguridad jurídica para la actividad económica privada; y vi) realizar reformas del sistema financiero que hagan posible un acceso más amplio al crédito, así como reformas del mercado de capitales que faciliten la financiación de la inversión en capital fijo.

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    File URL: http://www.iadb.org/research/pub_hits.cfm?pub_id=C-105&pub_file_name=pubC-105.pdf
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    Paper provided by Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department in its series Research Department Publications with number 1004.

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    Date of creation: Nov 2003
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    Handle: RePEc:idb:wpaper:1004
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    1. Guillermo A. Calvo & Carmen M. Reinhart, 2000. "Fear of Floating," NBER Working Papers 7993, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Banerjee, Abhijit & Bacchetta, Philippe & Aghion, Philippe, 2001. "Currency Crises and Monetary Policy in an Economy with Credit Constraints," Scholarly Articles 4554218, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    3. Barro, Robert J, 1979. "On the Determination of the Public Debt," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(5), pages 940-71, October.
    4. Joel Bogdanski & Alexandre Antonio Tombini & Sérgio Ribeiro da Costa Werlang, 2000. "Implementing Inflation Targeting in Brazil," Working Papers Series 1, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
    5. Alesina, Alberto & Hausmann, Ricardo & Hommes, Rudolf & Stein, Ernesto, 1999. "Budget institutions and fiscal performance in Latin America," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 253-273, August.
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