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A Critical Review of the “Ladder of Investment†Approach

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  • Dogan, Pinar
  • Bourreau, Marc
  • Manant, Matthieu

Abstract

The “ladder of investment†is a regulatory approach proposed by Cave (2006), which has been widely embraced by national regulatory authorities in the European telecommunications sector. The approach entails providing entrants, successively, with different levels of access—the “rungs†of the investment ladder, while inducing them to climb the ladder by setting an access charge that increases over time or by withdrawing access obligations after some pre-determined date (i.e., by setting sunset clauses). Proponents of the ladder of investment approach claim that such regulatory measures would make service-based entry and facility-based entry complements—albeit they have been traditionally viewed as substitutes—in promoting competition. The regulators, thus, have shown a strong interest in this approach. The paper provides a critical review of the ladder of investment approach by setting out its two underlying assumptions and discussing their validity with references to the related industrial organization literature.

Suggested Citation

  • Dogan, Pinar & Bourreau, Marc & Manant, Matthieu, 2010. "A Critical Review of the “Ladder of Investment†Approach," Scholarly Articles 4777447, Harvard Kennedy School of Government.
  • Handle: RePEc:hrv:hksfac:4777447
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Vareda, João, 2007. "Access Regulation under Asymmetric Information about Demand," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp525, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.
    2. Vareda, João & Hoernig, Steffen, 2007. "The race for telecoms infrastructure investment with bypass: Can access regulation achieve the first best?," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp524, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.
    3. Duarte Brito & Pedro Pereira, 2010. "Access to Bottleneck Inputs under Oligopoly: A Prisoners’ Dilemma?," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 76(3), pages 660-677, January.
    4. Marc Bourreau & Pinar Dogan, 2006. ""Build-or-Buy" Strategies in the Local Loop," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(2), pages 72-76, May.
    5. Guthrie, Graeme, 2006. "Regulating Infrastructure: The Impact on Risk and Investment," Working Paper Series 3851, Victoria University of Wellington, The New Zealand Institute for the Study of Competition and Regulation.
    6. Marc Bourreau & Johan Hombert & Jerome Pouyet & Nicolas Schutz, 2011. "Upstream Competition between Vertically Integrated Firms," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 59(4), pages 677-713, December.
    7. David E. M Sappington, 2005. "On the Irrelevance of Input Prices for Make-or-Buy Decisions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(5), pages 1631-1638, December.
    8. Valletti, Tommaso M., 0. "The theory of access pricing and its linkage with investment incentives," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(10-11), pages 659-675, November.
    9. Bourreau, Marc & Dogan, Pinar, 2005. "Unbundling the local loop," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 173-199, January.
    10. Graeme Guthrie, 2006. "Regulating Infrastructure: The Impact on Risk and Investment," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 44(4), pages 925-972, December.
    11. Distaso, Walter & Lupi, Paolo & Manenti, Fabio M., 2006. "Platform competition and broadband uptake: Theory and empirical evidence from the European union," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 87-106, March.
    12. Hori, Keiichi & Mizuno, Keizo, 2006. "Access pricing and investment with stochastically growing demand," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 795-808, July.
    13. Philip Gayle & Dennis Weisman, 2007. "Are input prices irrelevant for make-or-buy decisions?," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 195-207, October.
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