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Does Geographical Proximity Matter in Small Business Lending? Evidence from Changes in Main Bank Relationships

Author

Listed:
  • Ono, Arito
  • Saito, Yukiko
  • Sakai, Koji
  • Uesugi, Iichiro

Abstract

Using a unique and massive firm-bank matched panel dataset, this paper examines the causal link between the geographical distance between a firm and its main bank and the probably that a firm will switch its main bank. Utilizing the exogenous change in firm-main bank distances brought about by bank mergers and bank branch consolidations in Japan during 2000–2010, the analysis – the first of its kind – finds the following. First, an increase in lending distance positively affected switching of firm-main bank relationships. Second, the average lending distance for firms that switched to new main banks significantly decreased afterwards. Third, the lending distance of new firm-main bank relationships after the switch did not have a significant impact on firms' probability of ex-post default, suggesting that larger lending distance does not necessarily result in a deterioration in the quality of soft information.

Suggested Citation

  • Ono, Arito & Saito, Yukiko & Sakai, Koji & Uesugi, Iichiro, 2016. "Does Geographical Proximity Matter in Small Business Lending? Evidence from Changes in Main Bank Relationships," HIT-REFINED Working Paper Series 40, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  • Handle: RePEc:hit:remfce:40
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    File URL: http://hermes-ir.lib.hit-u.ac.jp/rs/bitstream/10086/27732/1/wp040.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. NAKAJIMA Kentaro & SAITO Yukiko Umeno & UESUGI Iichiro, 2012. "Localization of Interfirm Transaction Relationships and Industry Agglomeration," Discussion papers 12023, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    2. Ono, Arito & Hasumi, Ryo & Hirata, Hideaki, 2014. "Differentiated use of small business credit scoring by relationship lenders and transactional lenders: Evidence from firm–bank matched data in Japan," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 371-380.
    3. Bellucci, Andrea & Borisov, Alexander & Zazzaro, Alberto, 2013. "Do banks price discriminate spatially? Evidence from small business lending in local credit markets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4183-4197.
    4. Carling, Kenneth & Lundberg, Sofia, 2005. "Asymmetric information and distance: an empirical assessment of geographical credit rationing," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 39-59.
    5. Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2002. "Does Distance Still Matter? The Information Revolution in Small Business Lending," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2533-2570, December.
    6. Sumit Agarwal, 2010. "Distance and Private Information in Lending," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(7), pages 2757-2788, July.
    7. Vasso Ioannidou & Steven Ongena, 2010. ""Time for a Change": Loan Conditions and Bank Behavior when Firms Switch Banks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(5), pages 1847-1877, October.
    8. Rajan, Raghuram G, 1992. " Insiders and Outsiders: The Choice between Informed and Arm's-Length Debt," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(4), pages 1367-1400, September.
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    10. Farinha, Luisa A. & Santos, Joao A. C., 2002. "Switching from Single to Multiple Bank Lending Relationships: Determinants and Implications," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 124-151, April.
    11. Robert DeYoung & W. Frame & Dennis Glennon & Peter Nigro, 2011. "The Information Revolution and Small Business Lending: The Missing Evidence," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 39(1), pages 19-33, April.
    12. Gopalan, Radhakrishnan & Udell, Gregory F. & Yerramilli, Vijay, 2011. "Why Do Firms Form New Banking Relationships?," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 46(05), pages 1335-1365, November.
    13. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. " The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. OGANE Yuta, 2017. "Effects of Main Bank Switch on Small Business Bankruptcy," Discussion papers 17019, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    lending distance; firm-bank relationships; bank mergers; main bank;

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • R12 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Size and Spatial Distributions of Regional Economic Activity; Interregional Trade (economic geography)

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