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On the Non-Exclusivity of Loan Contracts: An Empirical Investigation

Author

Listed:
  • Degryse, Hans

    (Department of Finance)

  • Ioannidou , Vasso

    (Department of Fin)

  • von Schedvin, Erik

    (Research Department, Central Bank of Sweden)

Abstract

A string of theoretical papers shows that the non-exclusivity of credit contracts generates important negative contractual externalities. Employing a unique dataset, we identify how these externalities affect the supply of credit. Using internal information on a creditor’s willingness to lend, we find that a creditor reduces its credit supply when a borrower obtains a loan at another creditor (an “outside loan”). Consistent with the theoretical literature, the effect is more pronounced the larger the outside loans and it is muted if the initial creditor’s existing and future loans retain seniority over the outside loans and are secured with valuable collateral.

Suggested Citation

  • Degryse, Hans & Ioannidou , Vasso & von Schedvin, Erik, 2012. "On the Non-Exclusivity of Loan Contracts: An Empirical Investigation," Working Paper Series 258, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
  • Handle: RePEc:hhs:rbnkwp:0258
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    Cited by:

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    6. Cerqueiro, G.M. & Ongena, S. & Roszbach, K., 2011. "Collateralization, Bank Loan Rates and Monitoring : Evidence from a Natural Experiment," Discussion Paper 2011-087, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    7. Ralph De Haas & Matteo Millone & Jaap Bos, 2021. "Information Sharing in a Competitive Microcredit Market," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 53(7), pages 1677-1717, October.
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    9. Carbo-Valverde, Santiago & Degryse, Hans & Rodríguez-Fernández, Francisco, 2015. "The impact of securitization on credit rationing: Empirical evidence," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 36-50.
    10. Ono, Arito & Hasumi, Ryo & Hirata, Hideaki, 2014. "Differentiated use of small business credit scoring by relationship lenders and transactional lenders: Evidence from firm–bank matched data in Japan," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 371-380.
    11. Braggion, Fabio & Ongena, Steven, 2013. "A Century of Firm – Bank Relationships: Did Banking Sector Deregulation Spur Firms to Add Banks and Borrow More?," CEPR Discussion Papers 9695, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    12. Donaldson, Jason Roderick & Gromb, Denis & Piacentino, Giorgia, 2020. "The paradox of pledgeability," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 137(3), pages 591-605.
    13. Konstantin Kosenko & Noam Michelson, 2018. "It Takes More than Two to Tango: Understanding the Dynamics behind Multiple Bank Lending and its Implications," Bank of Israel Working Papers 2018.11, Bank of Israel.
    14. Olivier De Jonghe & Hans Dewachter & Klaas Mulier & Steven Ongena & Glenn Schepens, 2020. "Some Borrowers Are More Equal than Others: Bank Funding Shocks and Credit Reallocation [A theory of systemic risk and design of prudential bank regulation]," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 24(1), pages 1-43.
    15. Jason Allen & H. Evren Damar & David Martinez-Miera, 2016. "Consumer Bankruptcy, Bank Mergers, and Information," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 20(4), pages 1289-1320.
    16. Andrea Attar & Catherine Casamatta & Arnold Chassagnon & Jean Paul Décamps, 2017. "On the Role of Menus in Sequential Contracting: a Multiple Lending Example," CEIS Research Paper 409, Tor Vergata University, CEIS, revised 13 Jul 2017.
    17. Salvatore Piccolo & Giancarlo Spagnolo, 2014. "Debt, Managers and Cartels," CSEF Working Papers 365, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
    18. P. I. Omede, 2020. "A Tale of Two Markets: How Lower-end Borrowers Are Punished for Bank Regulatory Failures in Nigeria," Journal of Consumer Policy, Springer, vol. 43(3), pages 519-542, September.
    19. Diana Bonfim & Gil Nogueira & Steven Ongena, 2016. "Sorry, We're Closed: Loan Conditions When Bank Branches Close and Firms Transfer to Another Bank," Working Papers w201607, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
    20. Natacha Postel-Vinay, 2014. "Debt Dilution in 1920s America: Lighting the Fuse of a Mortgage Crisis," Working Papers 0053, European Historical Economics Society (EHES).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    non-exclusivity; contractual externalities; credit supply; debt seniority;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance
    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
    • L14 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Transactional Relationships; Contracts and Reputation

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