A note on the criticisms against the internationalization process model
The internationalization process model introduced three decades ago still influences international business studies. Since that time, a growing number of researchers have tested the model to show its strengths and weaknesses. Among the critics, some focus on the weakness of the theoretical aspects, while others argue against parts of the model. This paper will review these criticisms and compare them with the original ideas in the internationalization model. One criticized aspect of the internationalization model is the concept of commitment, which is treated by researchers via measurable indicators, i.e. tangible commitment. The aim of this paper is to study commitment from a different angle and deal with intangible commitments which are connected to the concept of psychic distance in the internationalization model. Exploration of the elements in commitment strengthens the model for the internationalization process. It also opens new doors for the use of the model for other internationalization modes, like project selling. To test the concept, a summary of a historical study in which firms lose their tangible commitments and rely only on intangible commitments is given.
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- Engwall, L. & Wallenstål, M., 1988. "Tit for tat in small steps: the internationalization of Swedish banks," Scandinavian Journal of Management, Elsevier, vol. 4(3-4), pages 147-155.
- Calof, Jonathan L. & Beamish, Paul W., 1995. "Adapting to foreign markets: Explaining internationalization," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 115-131, June.
- Johny K Johansson & Ilkka A Ronkainen & Michael R Czinkota, 1994. "Negative Country-of-Origin Effects: The Case of the New Russia," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 25(1), pages 157-176, March.
- Shawna O'Grady & Henry W Lane, 1996. "The Psychic Distance Paradox," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 27(2), pages 309-333, June.
- Stan D Reid, 1981. "The Decision-Maker and Export Entry and Expansion," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 12(2), pages 101-112, June.
- Martin S Roth & Jean B Romeo, 1992. "Matching Product Category and Country Image Perceptions: A Framework for Managing Country-of-Origin Effects," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 23(3), pages 477-497, September.
- Daniel Sullivan, 1994. "Measuring the Degree of Internationalization of a Firm," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 25(2), pages 325-342, June.
- Paul Chao, 1993. "Partitioning Country of Origin Effects: Consumer Evaluations of a Hybrid Product," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 24(2), pages 291-306, June.
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